種姓制度

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來自1916年一本書的插圖,一群巴蘇爾正在編織竹筐。「巴蘇爾」是印度北方邦的一種印度教種姓。

種姓英語:Caste,有時也被稱為卡斯特)是一種社會階層制度,其特點是通過內婚制、繼承的方式傳承某一特定階層的生活方式(通常包括職業、階級、溝通交流習慣、排斥等)。[1][2]雖然說許多不同的宗教中都有種姓制度,但其中最典型的例子是印度——種姓將印度社會的人們嚴格地劃分成不同的組別,這一習俗從古時一直流傳至今。[3]然而,由於城市化肯定性行動活動的進一步推廣,印度種姓制度在經濟活動上的重要性已經大大降低。印度種姓制度也被許多學者用來研究印度之外類似於種姓的社會分級系統。種姓一詞有時也用來描述蜜蜂、螞蟻等非人類動物的社會習慣。[4]

南亞[編輯]

印度[編輯]

當代印度的種姓制度基於人稱「迦提英語jāti」的社會組別以及理論上的瓦爾那應運而生。「瓦爾納」制度早在公元前1000年就已經出現在印度教的若干文獻中,將社會構想為由四個階層組建出的結構:婆羅門(教師、學者、牧師)、 剎帝利(戰士、貴族)、吠舍(農民、商人、手藝人)以及首陀羅(勞務者)。這些文獻並沒有提及在瓦爾納制度中有任何分離、不可接觸的種姓類別。學者們認為,瓦爾納系統是婆羅門構想出來的理論社會階級制度,但並沒有真的在社會當中成功運作過。社會運行的模式是一直基於迦提(出身)的,並沒有特別依照某些規則進行區分,但因種族、職業等原因而異。不同迦提之間是可以相互通婚的,但因長久以來的生活方式、社會地位、經濟實力的原因,人們會對不同的階級的地位產生模糊的高低貴賤的概念。實際上,迦提的制度可能與瓦爾納的制度並不互通。許多重要的迦提,比如賈特和亞達夫(Yadavs)就橫跨了兩個瓦爾納制度(Kshatriyas 和 Vaishyas),就連迦提的瓦爾納現狀本身也時時有待澄清。

尼泊爾[編輯]

尼泊爾的種姓制度和印度的迦提制度很像,有著若干的迦提分類,並用瓦爾納制度大致將二者等同,但社會、文化的不同自然也使得種姓制度有所不同。有銘文顯示,在尼波羅國時期就已經出現了種姓制度。賈亞斯提提·馬拉(Jayasthiti Malla,尼泊爾國王,1382年 - 1395年期間在位)就將尼瓦爾人分成了64個種姓;馬亨德拉·馬拉在位期間(Mahindra Malla,1506年-1575年期間在位)也做出了類似的舉動。後來,Ram Shah(1603年 - 1636年期間在位)在廓爾喀設立了印度的社會制度。

巴基斯坦[編輯]

巴基斯坦某些地區,宗教、歷史、社會文化因素確定了當地穆斯林社會的互相通婚範圍。一般來說,宗教、教派、種族、家族部落等各種因素形成的社會組別內部更傾向於通婚,從而形成了一種像家族一樣的社會結構。其中,宗教傾向本身又可細分下去,從穆斯林開始可以繼續細化,比如教派(什葉派還是遜尼派),以及教派內部的宗教取向(Isnashari, 伊斯瑪儀派阿赫邁底亞等)。[來源請求]

斯里蘭卡[編輯]

南亞以外的類種姓系統[編輯]

東南亞[編輯]

巴厘島的一名首陀羅種姓男子。攝於1870年,出自荷蘭熱帶博物館

印度尼西亞[編輯]

東亞[編輯]

中國與蒙古[編輯]

日本[編輯]

韓國[編輯]

朝鮮[編輯]

西亞[編輯]

伊朗[編輯]

葉門[編輯]

非洲[編輯]

西非[編輯]

中非[編輯]

非洲之角[編輯]

歐洲[編輯]

法國與西班牙[編輯]

英國[編輯]

腳註[編輯]

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參考資料[編輯]

拓展閱讀[編輯]

  • Spectres of Agrarian Territory by David Ludden 11 December 2001
  • "Early Evidence for Caste in South India", p. 467-492 in Dimensions of Social Life: Essays in honor of David G. Mandelbaum, Edited by Paul Hockings and Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, Amsterdam, 1987.

外部連結[編輯]