維生素B

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維生素B也作維他命B,是B族維生素的總稱,它們常常來自於相同的食物來源,如酵母等。維生素B曾經被認為是像維生素C那樣具有單一結構的有機化合物,但是後來的研究證明它其實是一組有著不同結構的化合物,於是它的成員有了獨立的名稱,如維生素B1,而維生素B成為了一個總稱,有的時候也被稱為維生素B族維生素B雜維生素B複合群

性質[編輯]

維生素B都是水溶性維生素,它們協同作用,調節新陳代謝,維持皮膚肌肉的健康,增進免疫系統神經系統的功能,促進細胞生長和分裂(包括促進紅血球的產生,預防貧血發生)。其中維生素B1、B6和B12有助保護神經組織細胞,維生素B2則具有抗氧化作用,而植物能合成維生素B2,動物一般不能合成,必須由食物獲得維生素B2,而維生素B2是維持動物正常生長所必需的元素之一,如果缺乏則有可能造成生長停頓,或局部損害,攝取充足的維生素B可以保持眼睛健康。[1]

補充可提高吸收利用的營養素[編輯]

維生素CE [2]

維生素B列表及功能[編輯]

維生素 名稱 結構 功效
維生素B1 硫胺 Thiamin.svg Thiamine plays a central role in the generation of energy from carbohydrates. It is involved in RNA and DNA production, as well as nerve function. Its active form is a coenzyme called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), which takes part in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) in metabolism.[3]
維生素B2 核黃素
維生素G
Riboflavin.svg Riboflavin is involved in the energy production for the electron transport chain, the citric acid cycle, as well as the catabolism of fatty acids (beta oxidation)[4]
維生素B3 煙酸
維生素PP
菸鹼酸
尼古丁酸
Niacin structure.svg
Niacin is composed of two structures: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. There are two co-enzyme forms of niacin: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Both play an important role in energy transfer reactions in the metabolism of glucose, fat and alcohol.[5]

NAD carries hydrogens and their electrons during metabolic reactions, including the pathway from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain. NADP is a coenzyme in lipid and nucleic acid synthesis.[6]

維生素B5 泛酸
遍多酸
本多酸(本多酸鈣)
(R)-Pantothenic acid Formula V.1.svg Pantothenic acid is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates. Coenzyme A, which can be synthesised from pantothenic acid, is involved in the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, ketones, cholesterol,[7] phospholipids, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters (such as acetylcholine), and antibodies.[8]
維生素B6 吡哆醇
(含吡哆醇吡哆醛吡哆胺
Pyridoxal-phosphate.svg The active form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) (depicted) serves as a cofactor in many enzyme reactions mainly in amino acid metabolism including biosynthesis of neurotransmitters.
維生素B7 生物素 Biotin structure JA.png Biotin plays a key role in the metabolism of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. It is a critical co-enzyme of four carboxylases: acetyl CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids from acetate; propionyl CoA carboxylase, involved in gluconeogenesis; β-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase, involved in the metabolism of leucin; and pyruvate CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the metabolism of energy, amino acids and cholesterol.[9]
維生素B9 蝶醯谷氨酸
葉酸維生素M葉精
Folic acid.svg Folic acid acts as a co-enzyme in the form of tetrahydrofolate (THF), which is involved in the transfer of single-carbon units in the metabolism of nucleic acids and amino acids. THF is involved in pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis, so is needed for normal cell division, especially during pregnancy and infancy, which are times of rapid growth. Folate also aids in erythropoiesis, the production of red blood cells.[10]
維生素B12 鈷胺素
氰鈷胺輔酶B12
Cobalamin.png Vitamin B12 is involved in the cellular metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. It is essential in the production of blood cells in bone marrow, and for nerve sheaths and proteins.[11] Vitamin B12 functions as a co-enzyme in intermediary metabolism for the methionine synthase reaction with methylcobalamin英語, and the methylmalonyl CoA mutase reaction with [[:adenosylcobalamin]|adenosylcobalamin]]]英語.[12]

此外,還有維生素B族的膽鹼肌醇通常也歸為人類必需維生素。

其他維生素B群[編輯]

還有一些物質也被稱為維生素B,但是請注意它們有些是以上人類必需維生素的別稱,有些不是人類必需維生素,甚至不是營養物質:

俗稱 化學名 說明
維生素B4 腺嘌呤
維生素B7* 異丁苯丙酸 商品名「布洛芬」,經常被稱為維生素I
維生素B8 腺嘌呤核苷酸 或被稱為肌醇
維生素B10 通常為葉酸和其他維生素B的混合物,也被稱為維生素R
維生素B11 水楊酸 也被稱為維生素S
維生素B13 通常為葉酸乳清酸(4-羥基尿嘧啶[來源請求]
維生素B14 維生素B10和維生素B11的混合物
維生素B15 泛配子酸 或被稱為潘氨酸
維生素B16
維生素B17 苦杏仁苷 或被稱為扁桃苷苦杏仁甙
維生素B18
維生素B19
維生素B20

肉鹼

維生素B21
維生素B22 被稱為是蘆薈提取物中的一種成分
維生素B-c 維生素B9的別稱
維生素B-h 環己六醇 肌醇的別稱
維生素B-t 三甲基羥基丁醯甜菜鹼 肉毒鹼的別稱
維生素B-w 生物素的別稱
維生素B-x 對氨基苯甲酸

食物來源[編輯]

維生素B群的主要食物來源比較相近,主要有酵母穀物、動物肝臟、麩糠種皮等。

參閱[編輯]

參考資料[編輯]

  1. ^ 詳見HealthyD.com:〈醒目ABC〉
  2. ^ 營養治療的處方百科
  3. ^ Fattal-Valevski, A. Thiamin (vitamin B1). Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2011, 16 (1): 12–20. doi:10.1177/1533210110392941. 
  4. ^ Riboflavin. Alternative Medicine Review. 2008, 13 (4): 334–340. PMID 19152481. 
  5. ^ Whitney, N; Rolfes, S Crowe, T Cameron-Smith, D Walsh, A. Understanding Nutrition. Melbourne: Cengage Learning. 2011. 
  6. ^ Chapter 6 - Niacin. National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board (編). Dietary Reference Intakes for Tjiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1998. 
  7. ^ University of Bristol. Pantothenic Acid. 2002 [16 September 2012]. 
  8. ^ Gropper, S; Smith, J. Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. 2009. 
  9. ^ University of Bristol. Biotin. 2012 [17 September 2012]. 
  10. ^ Chapter 8 - Folate. National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board (編). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1998. 
  11. ^ University of Bristol. Vitamin B12. 2002 [16 September 2012]. 
  12. ^ DSM. > Vitamin B12. 2012 [16 September 2012].