語用學

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語用學(pragmatics)是語言學的一個分支學科,與符號學理論相互交叉、滲透,研究語境對語言含義產生的影響與做出的貢獻。語用學包括言語行為理論、對話內涵義、交流中的對話,以及從哲學、社會學、語言學及人類學等角度解析人類語言行為的研究。

語用學分析研究語言行為(如招呼、回答、勸說)的文化準繩與發言規則。語用學還研究語言用於成事的方式。

不同的文化之間皆有約定俗成客套的對話,為了避免跨文化交流之中,因為語言規範的差異而在交談之中產生誤解,社會語言學的知識與務實能力是語言學習者所不能忽視的。

Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge (e.g., grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker and listener, but also on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors.[2] In this respect, pragmatics explains how language users are able to overcome apparent ambiguity, since meaning relies on the manner, place, time etc. of an utterance.[1]

The ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence.[3][4][5]

參見[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  • J. L. Austin (1962) How to Do Things With Words. Oxford University Press.
  • Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson. (1978) Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge University Press.
  • Carston, Robyn (2002) Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of Explicit Communication. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Herb Clark (1996) "Using Language". Cambridge University Press.
  • Cole, Peter, ed.. (1978) Pragmatics. (Syntax and Semantics, 9). New York: Academic Press.
  • Lin, G. H. C., & Perkins, L. (2005). Cross-cultural discourse of giving and accepting gifts. International Journal of Communication, 16,1-2, 103-12 (ERIC Collections in ED 503685 http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED503685.pdf)
  • Lin, G. H. C. (2007). The significant of pragmatics. Mingdao Journal, Vol, 3, 91-102 ERIC Collection in ED503682<http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED503685.pdf>
  • Lin. G. H. C., Su, S. C. F., & Ho, M. M. H. (2009). Pragmatics and communicative competences. Proceedings of the景文科技大學應用英語系2009研討會, 54-60 (ERIC Collections in ED514939<http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED514939.pdf>)

外部連結[編輯]