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語用學英語:Pragmatics)是語言學的一個分支學科,與符號學理論相互交叉、滲透,研究語境對語言含義產生的影響與做出的貢獻。語用學包括言語行為理論、對話內涵義、交流中的對話,以及從哲學、社會學、語言學及人類學等角度解析人類語言行為的研究。

語用學分析研究語言行為(如招呼、回答、勸說)的文化準繩與發言規則。語用學還研究語言用於成事的方式。

不同的文化之間皆有約定俗成客套的對話,為了避免跨文化交流之中,因為語言規範的差異而在交談之中產生誤解,社會語言學的知識與務實能力是語言學習者所不能忽視的。

參見[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  • Austin, J. L. (1962) How to Do Things With Words. Oxford University Press.
  • Ariel, Mira (2008), Pragmatics and Grammar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ariel, Mira. Defining Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-73203-1. 
  • Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson. (1978) Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge University Press.
  • Carston, Robyn (2002) Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of Explicit Communication. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Clark, Herbert H. (1996) "Using Language". Cambridge University Press.
  • Cole, Peter, ed.. (1978) Pragmatics. (Syntax and Semantics, 9). New York: Academic Press.
  • Dijk, Teun A. van. (1977) Text and Context. Explorations in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse. London: Longman.
  • Grice, H. Paul. (1989) Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
  • Laurence R. Horn and Gregory Ward. (2005) The Handbook of Pragmatics. Blackwell.
  • Leech, Geoffrey N. (1983) Principles of Pragmatics. London: Longman.
  • Levinson, Stephen C. (1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press.
  • Levinson, Stephen C. (2000). Presumptive meanings: The theory of generalized conversational implicature. MIT Press.
  • Lin, G. H. C., & Perkins, L. (2005). Cross-cultural discourse of giving and accepting gifts. International Journal of Communication, 16,1-2, 103-12 (ERIC Collections in ED 503685 http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED503685.pdf)
  • Mey, Jacob L. (1993) Pragmatics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell (2nd ed. 2001).
  • Kepa Korta and John Perry. (2006) Pragmatics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • Potts, Christopher. (2005) The Logic of Conventional Implicatures. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Robinson, Douglas. (2003). Performative Linguistics: Speaking and Translating as Doing Things With Words. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Robinson, Douglas. (2006). Introducing Performative Pragmatics. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Sperber, Dan and Wilson, Deirdre. (2005) Pragmatics. In F. Jackson and M. Smith (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy. OUP, Oxford, 468-501. (Also available here.)
  • Thomas, Jenny (1995) Meaning in Interaction: An Introduction to Pragmatics. Longman.
  • Verschueren, Jef. (1999) Understanding Pragmatics. London, New York: Arnold Publishers.
  • Verschueren, Jef, Jan-Ola Östman, Jan Blommaert, eds. (1995) Handbook of Pragmatics. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  • Watzlawick, Paul, Janet Helmick Beavin and Don D. Jackson (1967) Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes. New York: Norton.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna (1991) Cross-cultural Pragmatics. The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Yule, George (1996) Pragmatics (Oxford Introductions to Language Study). Oxford University Press.
  • Silverstein, Michael. 1976. "Shifters, Linguistic Categories, and Cultural Description," in Meaning and Anthropology, Basso and Selby, eds. New York: Harper & Row
  • Wardhaugh, Ronald. (2006). "An Introduction to Sociolinguistics". Blackwell.
  • Duranti, Alessandro. (1997). "Linguistic Anthropology". Cambridge University Press.
  • Carbaugh, Donal. (1990). "Cultural Communication and Intercultural Contact." LEA.

外部連結[編輯]