邏輯論證

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邏輯中,論證是基於叫做前提的一組斷言,證明叫做結論的斷言的真實性的嘗試。演繹歸納推理的證明過程形成了論證,並假定了某種交流方式,它可以是書寫的文本、演講或交談。

概述[編輯]

一般的,哲學和科學論證也常使用溯因論證和類推論證。論證可以是有效無效的,儘管如何確定論證是這兩個範疇中的某一個,自身也經常是大量討論的對象。非形式的,你可能期望有效的論證是強制性的,在它有能力使人信服結論的真實性的意義上。但是,這樣的有效性標準是不充足的甚至是令人誤解的,因為這更多的依賴於構造論證的人的技巧去操縱要說服的人,而更少依賴於論證自身。

論證的有效性的更少主觀性的標準經常是明顯需要的,並且在某些情況下我們甚至期望一個論證是嚴格的,就是說,堅持精確的有效性規則。這是在數學證明中使用的論證的情況。注意嚴格的證明不必須是形式證明

在平常語言中,人們提及論證的邏輯,或使用暗示了一個論證是基於形式邏輯推理規則的術語。儘管論證確可使用無可爭議的純邏輯推論(比如三段論),在實際論證中幾乎總是使用其他種類的推論。例如,常處理因果關係或然性統計或更特殊化的領域如經濟學的論證。在這些情況下,邏輯指稱論證的結構而不是可以用在其中的純邏輯的原理。

參考文獻[編輯]

  • Shaw, Warren Choate. The Art of Debate. Allyn and Bacon. 1922: 74. 
  • Robert Audi, Epistemology, Routledge, 1998. Particularly relevant is Chapter 6, which explores the relationship between knowledge, inference and argument.
  • J. L. Austin How to Do Things With Words, Oxford University Press, 1976.
  • H. P. Grice, Logic and Conversation in The Logic of Grammar, Dickenson, 1975.
  • Vincent F. Hendricks, Thought 2 Talk: A Crash Course in Reflection and Expression, New York: Automatic Press / VIP, 2005, ISBN 87-991013-7-8
  • R. A. DeMillo, R. J. Lipton and A. J. Perlis, Social Processes and Proofs of Theorems and Programs, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1979. A classic article on the social process of acceptance of proofs in mathematics.
  • Yu. Manin, A Course in Mathematical Logic, Springer Verlag, 1977. A mathematical view of logic. This book is different from most books on mathematical logic in that it emphasizes the mathematics of logic, as opposed to the formal structure of logic.
  • Ch. Perelman and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca, The New Rhetoric, Notre Dame, 1970. This classic was originally published in French in 1958.
  • Henri Poincaré, Science and Hypothesis, Dover Publications, 1952
  • Frans van Eemeren and Rob Grootendorst, Speech Acts in Argumentative Discussions, Foris Publications, 1984.
  • K. R. Popper Objective Knowledge; An Evolutionary Approach, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.
  • L. S. Stebbing, A Modern Introduction to Logic, Methuen and Co., 1948. An account of logic that covers the classic topics of logic and argument while carefully considering modern developments in logic.
  • Douglas Walton, Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argumentation, Cambridge, 1998.
  • Walton, Douglas; Christopher Reed; Fabrizio Macagno, Argumentation Schemes, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Carlos Chesñevar, Ana Maguitman and Ronald Loui, Logical Models of Argument, ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 32, num. 4, pp. 337–383, 2000.
  • T. Edward Damer. Attacking Faulty Reasoning, 5th Edition, Wadsworth, 2005. ISBN 0-534-60516-8
  • Charles Arthur Willard, A Theory of Argumentation. 1989.
  • Charles Arthur Willard, Argumentation and the Social Grounds of Knowledge. 1982.

延伸閱讀[編輯]

  • Salmon, Wesley C. Logic. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall (1963). Library of Congress Catalog Card no. 63-10528.
  • Aristotle, Prior and Posterior Analytics. Ed. and trans. John Warrington. London: Dent (1964)
  • Mates, Benson. Elementary Logic. New York: OUP (1972). Library of Congress Catalog Card no. 74-166004.
  • Mendelson, Elliot. Introduction to Mathematical Logic. New York: Van Nostran Reinholds Company (1964).
  • Frege, Gottlob. The Foundations of Arithmetic. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press (1980).
  • Martin, Brian. The Controversy Manual (Sparsnäs, Sweden: Irene Publishing, 2014).

外部連結[編輯]