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刺蝟困境

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叔本華在《附錄與補遺英語Parerga and Paralipomena》(1851年)中提出了「刺蝟困境」的概念

刺蝟困境(英語:Hedgehog's dilemma,又稱豪豬困境豪豬兩難說)由德國哲學家阿圖爾·叔本華於《附錄與補遺英語Parerga and Paralipomena》提出,是一個以刺蝟比喻人們在建立人際關係時的一種情境的寓言故事。一群刺蝟在寒冷的天氣時會想要靠近彼此來取暖,但是當兩隻刺蝟碰在一起時,又會被彼此的刺所刺傷,因此彼此又要保持一段距離。雖然雙方都想保持一個親近的關係,但又無法不刺傷彼此。

起源[編輯]

「刺蝟困境」的概念出自德國哲學家阿圖爾·叔本華的《附錄與補遺英語Parerga and Paralipomena》 ,第2卷,第31章,第396節[1]

 One cold winter's day, a number of porcupines huddled together quite closely in order through their mutual warmth to prevent themselves from being frozen. But they soon felt the effect of their quills on one another, which made them again move apart. Now when the need for warmth once more brought them together, the drawback of the quills was repeated so that they were tossed between two evils, until they had discovered the proper distance from which they could best tolerate one another. Thus the need for society which springs from the emptiness and monotony of men's lives, drives them together; but their many unpleasant and repulsive qualities and insufferable drawbacks once more drive them apart. The mean distance which they finally discover, and which enables them to endure being together, is politeness and good manners. Whoever does not keep to this, is told in England to 'keep his distance.' By virtue thereof, it is true that the need for mutual warmth will be only imperfectly satisfied, but on the other hand, the prick of the quills will not be felt. Yet whoever has a great deal of internal warmth of his own will prefer to keep away from society in order to avoid giving or receiving trouble or annoyance.[2]
 

 在一個寒冷的冬日,為了避免凍僵,一群箭豬相擁在一起取暖。但很快,它們感受到了各自對方的硬刺。這讓它們被迫分開。但當取暖的需要讓它們的身體再度靠在一起,身上的硬刺又再次把它們扎痛了。這些箭豬就被這兩種苦處反覆折騰,直到它們終於找到一段恰好最能容忍對方的距離為止。所以,出自人的內在空虛和單調的社交需要把人們趕到了一塊,但各人許多令人厭惡的素質和無法讓人容忍的缺點又把人們分開了。人們最後找到的、可以讓大家在一起的適中距離就是禮貌周到和文雅慣例。誰要是不保持這一距離,在英國人們就會沖他喊道:Keep your distance!(保持距離!)由於保持這一距離,雖然相互取暖的需求只是有欠完美地得到了滿足,但大家也就不會受到硬刺的刺痛。誰要是自身擁有足夠的熱量,那他就更寧願避開社交,既不給別人麻煩,也不會受到別人的煩擾。[3]
 

—由韋啟昌翻譯的中文版本

弗洛伊德[編輯]

這個概念被奧地利心理學家西格蒙德·弗洛伊德發現並引用後,「刺蝟困境」進入了心理學領域。弗洛伊德在其1921年著作《群體心理學和自我分析》(德語:Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse)的腳註中引用了刺蝟困境。弗洛伊德在談到他1909年的美國之行時說:「我要去美國看野豪豬並做一些講座」[1]

流行文化[編輯]

日本電視動畫《新世紀福音戰士》的第四集《雨、逃出去之後》引用了這一概念[4]。《今日心理學》的沃爾特·維特將豪豬困境概念的普及歸因於該作品。[5]

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 George Prochnik. The Porcupine Illusion. Cabinet Magazine. [2011-08-08]. 
  2. ^ Schopenhauer, Arthur. Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays, Volume 2. Arthur Schopenhauer: Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays (Oxford University Press). 1851-01-01, 2: 651–652 [2020-05-01]. ISBN 978-0521871853. 
  3. ^ 阿圖爾·叔本華. 附录和补遗(第2卷). 由韋啟昌翻譯. 上海人民出版社. 2020-05: 709. ISBN 9787208163300. 
  4. ^ 小黒祐一郎. 第36回 エヴァ雑記「第参話 鳴らない、電話」. アニメ様の七転八倒. AnimeStyle. 2006-05-22 [2018-07-22]. (原始內容存檔於2018-10-10) (日語). 
  5. ^ Veit, Walter. The Hedgehog's Dilemma. Psychology Today. 2020-03-28 [2021-03-21]. (原始內容存檔於2021-03-26). 

延伸閱讀[編輯]