高多汀 (詩歌)

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阿內林之書的一頁,記載了第一部分文本

《高多汀》威爾斯語Y Gododdin,發音:[ə ɡɔˈdɔðɪn])是一首中世紀的威爾斯語詩歌,由一系列獻給布立吞王國高多汀的人民及其同盟的輓歌組成。通常解釋他們犧牲於卡特瑞斯之戰中,對抗德伊勒伯尼西亞盎格魯人。傳統上認為其為吟遊詩人阿內林所著,留世的抄本只有一本,稱為阿內林之書

大多學者認為記載的這場戰役發生於600年左右,但成詩的日期很有爭議。一些學者認為,戰役後很短時間內,最初的口述版本就成形於「古老北地」(大不列顛北部講布立吞語的地區)。假定如此,該詩最初的語言就是當時該地區的通行的坎伯蘭語[1]它也就成了今蘇格蘭地區現存最古老的詩歌。[2]但其他人則認為,《高多汀》源於9或10世紀的威爾斯。如果是9世紀的作品,就是最初的威爾斯詩歌之一。

高多汀覆蓋今蘇格蘭東南部和諾森伯蘭郡的領土,是「古老北地」的一部分,在羅馬時代叫做沃塔迪尼。這首詩描寫了300(或363)名精英勇士會集起來的過程,其中一些人甚至來自於遙遠的皮克特蘭格溫內斯。在Din Eidyn(今愛丁堡)盛宴一年後,他們進攻了卡特瑞斯(通常認為是北約克郡卡特里克)。面對壓倒性的優勢,幾天的戰鬥後,幾乎所有的勇士都犧牲了。該詩內容不是敘事,但其氣概有如英雄詩,強調英雄們為了榮譽而戰鬥。

這首詩現存的手稿以部分中古威爾斯語和部分古威爾斯語寫成,時間追溯至13世紀下半葉。這份手稿里有與高多汀毫無關係的幾節詩,一般認為是添寫的。 其中一節提到了亞瑟王,如果能證明這一節出自6世紀末7世紀初,就可以作為已知最早的出處而極具重要性。

注釋[編輯]

  1. ^ Elliot 2005, p. 583.
  2. ^ As indicated by Jackson, The Earliest Surviving Scottish Poem.

參考資料[編輯]

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外部連結[編輯]