縮寫

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縮寫(英語:Abbreviation(Abbrev),來自拉丁語 brevis,意為「短」[1]),在語言學裡是一種詞語或短語的簡易形式,又稱省略縮略語、縮寫詞。縮寫大部分時候等同於簡稱,但它們之間有細微的差別。 廣義的縮寫囊括了元音縮合英語Crasis(Crasis,一種通過合併兩個元音把多個詞複合為一個詞的現象)、首字母縮略詞(Acronym)、字母詞(Initialisms)和中略英語Contraction (grammar)等概念,但在較為嚴格的分析當中可能會把他們排除或分別討論。[2]:p167

縮寫類型[編輯]

音素縮寫[編輯]

首字母縮略語[編輯]

首字母縮略詞,又稱頭字語[3],是英語法語裡面常見的縮寫類型。這種音素縮寫會將縮略語以詞的形式發音[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]。如:

字母詞[編輯]

字母詞也是一種首字母縮略詞,但是一般將其按字母逐字發音[19]。如:

拼寫簡化[編輯]

拼寫簡化(Short form)只在書寫上縮減,並不會改變詞的讀法。一部分拼寫簡化屬於中略。這種縮寫一般會在後面加一個點「.」.[2]:p167–170 [20]。如:

  • abbreviation → abbr.或abbrev.
  • Doctor → Dr.
  • Company → Co.
  • building → bldg.
  • Street → St.
  • Road → Rd.
  • Boulevard → Blvd.

音節縮寫[編輯]

截音詞[編輯]

英語:截音法羅馬化:en:Clipping (morphology)直譯:截音(英語:Clipping)是截取詞語的一部分作為縮略語的方法,是一種音節縮寫(英語:Syllabic abbreviation)。如:

  • telephone→ phone
  • examination → exam
  • mathematics → math
  • laboratory → lab
  • facsimile → fax
  • memorandum → memo
  • influenza → flu

一些短語的音節縮寫[編輯]

一些縮略語由複合詞或短語中截取一部分音節構成,這些縮略語也是典型的音節縮寫。這種縮略語一般用於專有名詞。

這種音節縮寫容易跟混成詞(英語:Portmanteau或Blend word)混淆,雖然兩者的意義和讀音來自兩個以上的語素[21][22][23][24],但混成詞並沒有一個作為原型的短語。

例如:

與英語、法語相比,音節縮寫在德語俄語比較常見。納粹時期及之前的德國蘇聯為了新的官僚機構命名時,非常盛行使用音節縮寫。如:

  • SchutzpolizistSchupo(德語,保護警察英語Schutzpolizei
  • Geheime Staats-PolizeiGestapo(德語,秘密國家警察,縮寫音譯為蓋世太保
  • Всесоюзный Ленинский Коммунистический Союз МолодёжиКомсомол(俄語,蘇聯共青團
  • Коммунистический интернационалКоминтерн(俄語,共產國際

後來的德國人,包括東德,仍然會使用音節縮寫,如:

語素縮寫[編輯]

語素是由詞、短語中的語素構成縮略語的縮寫方法。這是漢語日語裡面最常見的縮寫類型之一。由於漢語是非常典型的孤立語,其語素單位大部分時候與音節單位契合,所以往往也可以視為音節縮寫。如:

  • 學 → 北大
  • 除文 → 掃盲
  • 民警察 → 民警
  • 洲聯歐盟
  • 東南亞國會 → 東協、東南亞國協
  • 維埃社會主義共和國盟 → 蘇聯
  • 產黨 → 中共
  • 国連(日語,聯合國
  • 東大(日語,東京大學

漢語也會由從詞、短語甚至句子中抽出相同的語素,與數詞(或再加量詞)構成縮略語。如:

  • 世界、人生、價值三觀
  • 農業、工業、國防和科學技術的現代化四個現代化、四化
  • 始終代表中國先進社會生產力的發展要求、始終代表中國先進文化的前進方向、始終代表中國最廣大人民的根本利益 → 三個代表

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ brevis/breve, brevis M – Latin is Simple Online Dictionary. www.latin-is-simple.com. [2018-03-29] (英語). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 New Hart's Rules: The handbook of style for writers and editors. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-861041-6. 
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster, Inc. Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, 1994. ISBN 0-87779-132-5. pp. 21–22:

    acronyms  A number of commentators (as Copperud 1970, Janis 1984, Howard 1984) believe that acronyms can be differentiated from other abbreviations in being pronounceable as words. Dictionaries, however, do not make this distinction because writers in general do not:

    "The powder metallurgy industry has officially adopted the acronym 'P/M Parts'"—Precision Metal Molding, January 1966.
    "Users of the term acronym make no distinction between those pronounced as words ... and those pronounced as a series of characters" —Jean Praninskas, Trade Name Creation, 1968.
    "It is not J.C.B.'s fault that its name, let alone its acronym, is not a household word among European scholars"—Times Literary Supp. 5 February 1970.
    "... the confusion in the Pentagon about abbreviations and acronyms—words formed from the first letters of other words"—Bernard Weinraub, N.Y. Times, 11 December 1978.

    Pyles & Algeo 1970 divide acronyms into "initialisms", which consists of initial letters pronounced with the letter names, and "word acronyms", which are pronounced as words. Initialism, an older word than acronym, seems to be too little known to the general public to serve as the customary term standing in contrast with acronym in a narrow sense.

  4. ^ "acronym". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1991), Oxford University Press. p. 12: "a word, usu[ally] pronounced as such, formed from the initial letters of other words (e.g. Ernie, laser, Nato)".
  5. ^ "acronym" "Cambridge Dictionary of American English", accessed October 5, 2008: "a word created from the first letters of each word in a series of words."
  6. ^ "acronym" "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language", accessed August 13, 2015: "1. A word formed by combining the initial letters of a multipart name, such as NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization or by combining the initial letters or parts of a series of words, such as radar from radio detecting and ranging. 2. Usage Problem An initialism. Usage Note: In strict usage, the term acronym refers to a word made from the initial letters or parts of other words, such as sonar from so(und) na(vigation and) r(anging). The distinguishing feature of an acronym is that it is pronounced as if it were a single word, in the manner of NATO and NASA. Acronyms are often distinguished from initialisms like FBI and NIH, whose individual letters are pronounced as separate syllables. While observing this distinction has some virtue in precision, it may be lost on many people, for whom the term acronym refers to both kinds of abbreviations."
  7. ^ "acronym" "Collins Dictionaries", accessed August 13, 2015: "a pronounceable name made up of a series of initial letters or parts of words; for example, UNESCO for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization"
  8. ^ "acronym" "Cambridge Dictionaries Online", accessed August 13, 2015: "an abbreviation consisting of the first letters of each word in the name of something, pronounced as a word: AIDS is an acronym for 'Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome'."
  9. ^ "acronym" "Cambridge Dictionaries Online", accessed August 13, 2015: "Acronyms are words which are formed from the first letters of other words, and which are pronounced as full words."
  10. ^ "acronym" "Wordsmyth, the Priemier Educational Dictionary-Thesaurus", accessed August 13, 2015: "a type of abbreviation used as a word, formed by combining the initial letters (or initial parts) of words that make up a particular string. The pronunciation of an acronym is based on the typical rules of pronouncing words in a language and is not made up of the sounds of the names of individual letters. NASA is an acronym for 'National Aeronautics and Space Administration.' The abbreviations 'FBI' and 'DVD' are not acronyms, but 'AIDS,' 'FICA,' and 'PIN' are."
  11. ^ "acronym" "NetLingo, the Internet Dictionary", accessed August 13, 2015: "Derived from the first letters of a phrase, acronyms are meant to make the phrase easier to say and remember. With an acronym, the first letter of each word makes up a new word that is, in fact, pronounceable (for example, SNAFU is pronounced "sna-foo" and WOMBAT is pronounced "wahm-bat")."
  12. ^ "acronym". Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing (2012). Stedman. "A pronounceable word formed from the initial letters of each word or selected words in a phrase (e.g., AIDS)".
  13. ^ "acronym" "AES Pro Audio Reference", accessed August 13, 2015: "A word formed from the first letters of a name, such as laser for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, or by combining initial letters or parts of a series of words, such as radar for radio detecting and ranging. The requirement of forming a word is what distinguishes an acronym from an abbreviation (or initialism as it is also called). Thus modem [modulator-demodulator] is an acronym, and AES [Audio Engineering Society] is an abbreviation or initialism."
  14. ^ "The Correct Use of Acronyms and Initialisms" "Scribendi Proofreading Services", accessed August 13, 2015: "An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of a name or phrase. It is pronounced as if it were a word. Examples of common acronyms include "SARS" (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and "UNICEF" (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund)"
  15. ^ "The Difference Between an Acronym and an Initialism" "Today I Found Out", accessed August 13, 2015: "An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of a name or phrase. It is pronounced as if it were a word. Examples of common acronyms include "SARS" (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and "UNICEF" (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund)"
  16. ^ Crystal, David (1995). "Abbreviation". The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55985-5. p. 120: Under the heading "Types of Abbreviation", this article separately lists initialisms and acronyms, describing the latter as "Initialisms pronounced as single words", but adds, "However, some linguists do not recognize a sharp distinction between acronyms and initialisms, but use the former term for both."
  17. ^ "The 10 Most Misunderstood Terms in IT" "TechTarget", accessed August 13, 2015: "An acronym is not any abbreviation, just one that forms a "sayable" word. Apart from that confusion, acronyms and other abbreviations cause confusion any time a reader is likely not to know what the spelled-out version is."
  18. ^ "initialism" "Online Etymology Dictionary", accessed August 13, 2015: "initialism (n.) word formed from the first letters of other words or a phrase, 1957, from initial (n.) + -ism. The distinction from acronym is not universally agreed-upon; in general, words such as NATO, where the letters form a word, are regarded as acronyms, those such as FBI, where the letters sound as letters, are initialisms. The use of acronym in entries in this dictionary that are technically initialisms is a deliberate error, because many people only know to search for all such words under 'acronym.'"
  19. ^ dGuide to the Third Edition of the OED. Oxford English Dictionary. 2010-08-19 [2012-12-19]. (原始內容存檔於2015-09-06). 
  20. ^ Allen, Robert (編). Full stop. Pocket Fowler's Modern English Usage 2nd. Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 9780191727078. 
  21. ^ What is a portmanteau morph?. LinguaLinks Library. 2003. (原始內容存檔於2008-06-19). 
  22. ^ Thomas, David. An invitation to grammar. Summer Institute of Linguistics. Bangkok: Mahidol University: 9. 1983. 
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  24. ^ Hartmann, R.R.K.; Stork, F.C. Dictionary of language and linguistics. London: Applied Science: 180. 1972. 

參見[編輯]