哈利法克斯爆炸

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Halifax Explosion
Halifax Explosion blast cloud.jpg
蘑菇雲[1]
日期 1917年12月6日
9:04:35(AST
地点 加拿大新斯科舍省哈利法克斯
死亡人數 2,000(估算)(已知1,950人)
受傷人數 9,000(估算)

哈利法克斯爆炸發生在1917年12月6日,加拿大新斯科舍省哈利法克斯,法國貨船SS Mont-Blanc滿載炸藥,與挪威船舶SS伊莫在海峽發生碰撞[2],海峽與哈利法克斯港貝德福德盆地相接。大約二十分鐘後,法國貨船爆發,摧毀哈利法克斯列治文區。大約有2000人死於泥石流,火災和建築物倒塌,近9000人受傷[3]。哈利法克斯爆炸是核武器發展前最大的人造爆炸[4],約2.9萬噸TNT炸藥。1918年5月,達爾豪西大學教授霍華德·L.布朗森估計爆炸約2400噸TNT炸藥[5]

參考[编辑]

  1. ^ Several locations have been attributed to this image but comparisons of direction, land elevation and the foreground vessel mostly strongly suggest Bedford Basin Joel Zemel, "Halifax Explosion - The Anatomy Of A Disaster: An Analysis of Two 1917 Halifax Explosion Blast Cloud Photographs"
  2. ^ The ship had been named with the initials - JMO - after the senior owner of the company, Johan Martin Osmundsen (aka Jurgens M. Osmond), but people started calling her Imo and the name stuck. Source: Methods of Disaster Research by Robert A. Stallings (International Research Committee on Disasters ©2002), pp. 281-282.
  3. ^ CBC - Halifax Explosion 1917. CBC.ca. 2003-09-19 [2011-02-25]. 
  4. ^ Time: Disasters that Shook the World. New York City: Time Home Entertainment. 2012: 56. ISBN 1-60320-247-1. 
  5. ^ John Griffith Armstrong, The Halifax Explosion and the Royal Canadian Navy: Inquiry and Intrigue (2004, UBC Press), pp. 41-42