納爾瓦之役

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纳尔瓦之役
大北方戰爭的一部分
Narva 1700.png
"Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld vid Narva" 由戴維·馮·克拉夫特英语David von Krafft繪製
日期1700年11月19日(O.S.
1700年11月20日 (瑞典曆
1700年11月30日 (N.S.
地点
结果 瑞典決定性勝利[1][2]
参战方
Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg 瑞典帝國 Flag of Russia.svg 俄羅斯沙皇國
指挥官与领导者
卡爾十二世[3]
卡爾·古斯塔夫·雷恩斯基爾德英语Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld[3]
奧托·韋靈克英语Otto Vellingk[3]
查爾斯·歐仁·代·克羅伊英语Charles Eugène de Croÿ[3]
阿維托諾姆·戈洛文英语Avtonom Golovin[3]
伊萬·特魯貝齊科伊英语Ivan Trubetskoy[3]
亞當·韋德英语Adam Veyde[3]
鮑里斯·謝列梅捷夫英语Boris Sheremetev[3]
伊梅列季王子亞歷山大英语Alexander, Prince of Imereti[3]
兵力
納爾瓦兵營:
1,800人
297門火砲
援軍:
10,500人
37門加農砲[a]
37,000人
195門火砲[b]
伤亡与损失
667人戰死
1,247人負傷[c]
超過9,000人戰死
20,000人被俘[d]
註腳
  • ^[a] About 12,300 men of which 1,800 were stationed in Narva with 297 artillery pieces and 10,537 (5,889 infantry, 4,314 cavalry, 37 cannons with 334 crew) assaulting the Russians.[4]
  • ^[b] Up to 37,000 men of which 4,000 were deployed at the siege-works with 125 artillery pieces and 33,000 (23,652 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, 70 cannons with 321 crew) facing the Swedes.[5][6][7]
  • ^[c] Reports of 31 officers and 636 privates dead, 66 officers and 1,181 privates wounded.[8] Another report claims almost 900 dead Swedish troops[9]
  • ^[d] Almost the entire Russian force was either killed or captured during the battle (except for some 4,000 cavalry who managed to escape over the kamperholm bridge).[10] 8,000 Russians were reported killed and another 1,000 drowned.[8] Over 20,000 were captured and disarmed but later set free and allowed march to Russia (except for 700 men [134 officers] who were set prisoners).[8][11][12] 23,000 out of initially 37,000 Russians managed to reach back to Russian land, estimating the Russian final casualties to about 14,000 either dead during the battle or the harsh march back to Russia.[8] The Swedes also seized 171 standards and banners, 145 cannons, 28 mortars and four howitzers as well as 24,000 muskets.[9][13]

纳尔瓦之役((俄语:Битва на Нарве瑞典語Slaget vid Narva,英語:Battle of Narva)发生于1700年11月30日,俄羅斯帝國入侵瑞典領土。最終瑞典国王卡爾十二世以一流的战术大败沙皇彼得大帝的大军。這場戰役是大北方战争的開端。

11月30日,37,000名俄军包围了仅由8,140名瑞典军(由卡尔十二世率领)防守的纳尔瓦,但中午,查理十二世的瑞典军与援兵突袭俄军,轻易地把慌张的俄军打败,加上俄军指挥多是外地人,使很多军团都不能合作,所以战役后,俄军失去了足足15,000人,而瑞典则只有667人阵亡。

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Kerala J. Snyder (2002), p.137
  2. ^ Magnus Stenbock Count and Spy
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 引用错误:没有为名为Black111的参考文献提供内容
  4. ^ Christer Kuvaja (2008), p.139
  5. ^ Lars-Eric Höglund, Åke Sallnäs, Alexander Vespalov (2011). Great Northern War 1700 - 1721, II.
  6. ^ Generalstaben (1918-1919). Karl XII på slagfältet.
  7. ^ Tacitus.nu, Örjan Martinsson. Russian force.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Boris Grigorjev & Aleksandr Bespalov (2012). Kampen mot övermakten. Baltikums fall 1700-1710. pp. 38
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 引用错误:没有为名为ullgren的参考文献提供内容
  10. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Svenska slag的参考文献提供内容
  11. ^ Cathal J. Nolan (2008). Wars of the Age of Louis XIV, 1650-1715. pp. 313
  12. ^ Hughes, Lindsey. Russia in the Age of Peter the Great. — New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998. pp. 30.
  13. ^ Olle Larsson, Stormaktens sista krig (2009) Lund, Historiska Media. pp. 99