防曬油

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防曬霜英语sunscreen)是防止皮膚紫外線曬傷的護膚品。防曬霜有不同的防御指数SPF(Sun Protection Factor),指在一段情況下可延長避免晒傷的時間。如用SPF4太陽油,則在每平方公分的皮膚塗抹有 2毫克的防曬乳的情況下(臉部大約共為十元硬幣大小的量),可以延長4倍的曬傷時間,本來一小時便會晒傷的皮膚,可以受保護多至4小時;亦能夠阻隔 75%的UVB (算法: (SPF-1)/SPF)[1]。防曬黑係數(protection factor for UVA)則為評估防曬劑對UVA的防曬能力指數,包含日本的PA值系統、歐洲的PPD值系統。[2]

組成[编辑]

防曬乳含有下列中一項以上的成分:

  • 能吸收紫外線的有機化合物 (原理:化學性防曬)
  • 能反射或分散紫外線的無機微粒 (如氧化鋅二氧化鈦,或兩者的混和) (物理性防曬)
  • 如同有機化合物吸收紫外線的有機微粒,其中含有多重的生色團分子,能像無機微粒反射或分散一部分光線,且相較於有機化合物有結構上的差異,如Tinosorb M。(化學性+物理性)

紫外線的減弱效力受到其顆粒大小極大的影響,因此成分通常微粒化至 200奈米以下,以確保一定程度的吸收效果。此種防曬模式中90%紫外光被吸收(化學性防曬),其餘10%則被反射(物理性防曬)。

有效成分[编辑]

FDA核准成分[编辑]

以下是FDA所核可應用於防曬乳中的有效成分:

防曬劑 別名 法定上限濃度 核准使用的國家 安全測試結果
p-Aminobenzoic acid PABA 15% (EC- banned from sale to consumers from 8 October 2009) USA, AUS Protects against skin tumors in mice.[3][4][5] Shown to increase DNA defects, however, and is now less commonly used.
Padimate O OD-PABA, octyldimethyl-PABA, σ-PABA 8% (EC,USA,AUS) 10% (JP)

(Not currently supported in EU and may be delisted)

EC, USA, AUS, JP Not tested
Phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid Ensulizole, Eusolex 232, PBSA, Parsol HS 4% (US,AUS) 8% (EC) 3% (JP) EC,USA, AUS, JP Genotoxic in bacteria[6]
Cinoxate 2-Ethoxyethyl p-methoxycinnamate 3% (US) 6% (AUS) USA, AUS Not tested
Dioxybenzone Benzophenone-8 3% USA, AUS Not tested
Oxybenzone Benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567 6% (US) 10% (AUS,EU) 5% (JP) EC, USA, AUS, JP Not tested
Homosalate Homomethyl salicylate, HMS 10% (EC, JP) 15% (US,AUS) EC, USA, AUS, JP Not tested
Menthyl anthranilate Meradimate 5% USA, AUS Not tested
Octocrylene Eusolex OCR, 2-Cyano-3,3-diphenyl acrylic acid, 2-ethylhexylester 10% EC,USA, AUS, JP Increases ROS[7]
Octyl methoxycinnamate Octinoxate, EMC, OMC, Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, Escalol 557, 2-Ethylhexyl-paramethoxycinnamate, Parsol MCX 7.5% (US) 10% (EC,AUS)20% (JP) EC,USA, AUS, JP
Octyl salicylate Octisalate, 2-Ethylhexyl salicylate, Escalol 587, 5% (EC,USA,AUS) 10% (JP) EC,USA, AUS, JP Not tested
Sulisobenzone 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid, 3-Benzoyl-4-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzenesulfonic acid, Benzophenone-4, Escalol 577 5% (EC) 10% (US, AUS, JP) EC,USA, AUS, JP
Trolamine salicylate Triethanolamine salicylate 12% USA, AUS Not tested
Avobenzone 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-tert-butyl
phenyl)propane-1,3-dione, Butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane, BMDBM, Parsol 1789, Eusolex 9020
3% (US) 5% (EC,AUS)10% (JP) EC, USA, AUS, JP Not available[8]
Ecamsule Mexoryl SX, Terephthalylidene Dicamphor Sulfonic Acid 10% EC,AUS (US:Approved in certain formulations up to 3% via New Drug Application (NDA) Route) Protects against skin tumors in mice[9][10][11]
Titanium dioxide CI77891 25% (No limit Japan) EC,USA, AUS, JP Not tested
Zinc oxide 25% (US) 20% (AUS)

(EC-25% provided particle size >100 nm) (Japan, No Limit)

EC,USA, AUS, JP Protects against skin tumors in mice[9]

以下則為歐盟[12] 及世界其他地區所核准、[13] 但不在 FDA規章核可範圍之內的有效成分:

防曬劑 別名 吸收波段(大約數值) 法定上限濃度 核准使用的國家
4-Methylbenzylidene camphor Enzacamene, Parsol 5000, Eusolex 6300, MBC 4%* EC, AUS
Tinosorb M Bisoctrizole, Methylene Bis-Benzotriazolyl Tetramethylbutylphenol, MBBT 10%* EC, AUS, JP
Tinosorb S Bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenol triazine, Bemotrizinol, BEMT, anisotriazine 290-350 nm 10% (EC, AUS) 3% (JP)* EC, AUS, JP
Neo Heliopan AP Bisdisulizole Disodium, Disodium phenyl dibenzimidazole tetrasulfonate, bisimidazylate, DPDT 310-350 nm 10% EC, AUS
Mexoryl XL Drometrizole Trisiloxane 290-360 nm 15% EC, AUS
Benzophenone-9 Uvinul DS 49, CAS 3121-60-6, Sodium Dihydroxy Dimethoxy Disulfobenzophenone [14] 10% JP
Uvinul T 150 Octyl triazone, ethylhexyl triazone, EHT 5% (EC, AUS) 3% (JP)* EC, AUS
Uvinul A Plus Diethylamino Hydroxybenzoyl Hexyl Benzoate 320-400 nm (354 nm maximum)[15] 10% (EC,JP) EC, JP
Uvasorb HEB Iscotrizinol, Diethylhexyl butamido triazone, DBT 10% (EC) 5% (JP) * EC, JP
Parsol SLX Dimethico-diethylbenzalmalonate, Polysilicone-15 10% EC, AUS, JP
Isopentenyl-4-methoxycinnamate Isoamyl p-Methoxycinnamate, IMC, Neo Heliopan E1000, Amiloxate 10% * EC, AUS
  • Time and Extent Application (TEA), Proposed Rule on FDA approval expected 2009

上述防曬劑相較於舊有的防曬劑為新式的成分,是為了進一步吸收大多傳統成分無法涵蓋的 UVA波段開發而成。

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 什麼是SPF?. 香港天文台 (中文(香港)‎). 
  2. ^ 美容藥物學
  3. ^ H Flindt-Hansen; P. Thune, T. Eeg-Larsen. The inhibiting effect of PABA on photocarcinogenesis. Archives of Dermatological Research. 1990, 282 (1): 38–41. doi:10.1007/BF00505643. PMID 2317082. 
  4. ^ H Flindt-Hansen; P. Thune, T. Eeg-Larsen. The effect of short-term application of PABA on photocarcinogenesis. Acta Derm Venerol. 1990, 70 (1): 72–75. PMID 1967881. 
  5. ^ P. J. Osgood; S. H. Moss, D. J. Davies. The sensitization of near-ultraviolet radiation killing of mammalian cells by the sunscreen agent para-aminobenzoic acid. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 1982, 79 (6): 354–357. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12529409. PMID 6982950. 
  6. ^ Mosley, C N; Wang, L; Gilley, S; Wang, S; Yu, H. Light-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of a Sunscreen Agent, 2-Phenylbenzimidazol in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and HaCaT Keratinocytes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2007, 4 (2): 126–131. doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040006. PMID 17617675. 
  7. ^ 引用错误:无效<ref>标签;未为name属性为Hanson的引用提供文字
  8. ^ Nash, JF. Human Safety and Efficacy of Ultraviolet Filters and Sunscreen Products. Dermatologic Clinics. 2006, 24 (1): 35–51. doi:10.1016/j.det.2005.09.006. PMID 16311166. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Lautenschlager, Stephan; Wulf, Hans Christian; Pittelkow, Mark R. photoprotection. Lancet. 2007, 370 (9586): 528–37. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60638-2. PMID 17693182. 
  10. ^ Benech-Kieffer F, Meuling WJ, Leclerc C, Roza L, Leclaire J, Nohynek G. Percutaneous absorption of Mexoryl SX in human volunteers: comparison with in vitro data. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2003.Nov-Dec, 16 (6): 343–55. doi:10.1159/000072929. PMID 14528058. 
  11. ^ Fourtanier A. Mexoryl SX protects against solar-simulated UVR-induced photocarcinogenesis in mice. Photochem Photobiol. 1996.October, 64 (4): 688–93. doi:10.1111/j.1751-1097.1996.tb03125.x. PMID 8863475. 
  12. ^ CL1976L0768EN0150010.0001 1..107
  13. ^ Australian Regulatory Guidelines for OTC Medicines - Chapter 10
  14. ^ Uvinul Grades (PDF). [2009-09-25]. 
  15. ^ Uvinul A plus. 

参见[编辑]