俄諾瑪俄斯

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俄諾瑪俄斯、希波達彌亞和奧利匹斯眾神,一個古代花瓶上的圖畫

俄諾瑪俄斯希臘語Οινόμαος)是古希臘神話中的比薩王,[1]那伊阿得斯哈珀娜[2]普勒阿得斯斯忒洛珀[3](有時也被認為是俄諾瑪俄斯的配偶)[4]和戰神阿瑞斯之子,希波達彌亞之父。除去斯忒洛珀的可能性之外,他的妻子也可能是阿爾戈斯的Evarete(阿克里西俄斯歐律狄刻之女)。另外達那俄斯之女Eurythoe也被認為是他的母親[5]或配偶。[6]除去希波達彌亞,他的孩子還有留基伯(因愛戀達佛涅而死)和阿爾卡珀鮑桑尼亞認為俄諾瑪俄斯的父親不可能是神而是人類。[7]歐里庇得斯著作《在陶里斯的伊菲革涅亞》中的譜系證據顯示,俄諾瑪俄斯是特洛伊戰爭的前二代之人,是亞崔迪阿伽門農墨涅拉俄斯的祖父。

珀羅普斯與俄諾瑪俄斯之死[编辑]

珀羅普斯想要娶俄諾瑪俄斯之女希波達彌亞為妻,但是俄諾瑪俄斯曾經得到一個預言:他將會被自己的女婿殺死,爲了阻止這一事情發生,他通過戰車賽殺死了13個來向希波達彌亞求婚的人,並將他們的頭顱釘在宮殿的木柱上。[8]爲了娶到希波達彌亞,珀羅普斯決定與俄諾瑪俄斯比賽。爲了保證不失敗,珀羅普斯向波塞冬求助,後者交給他一輛飛馬拉的戰車[9]珀羅普斯和希波達彌亞換掉了俄諾瑪俄斯車輪上的車軸,因此俄諾瑪俄斯因翻車被韁繩纏住,而被馬拖死了。俄諾瑪俄斯的車夫彌爾提洛斯倖存,但最終為珀羅普斯所殺。

彌爾提洛斯死前對珀羅普斯下了詛咒,導致後者的許多後代如阿特柔斯梯厄斯忒斯阿伽門農墨涅拉俄斯俄瑞斯忒斯都不得善終。同時彌爾提洛斯位於奧林匹亞的墓地也被認為是一個不祥之處。俄諾瑪俄斯的戰車賽被認為是古代奧林匹克運動會的起源之一,并產生了一些厄利斯傳說。[10]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ In the ancient territory of Pisa lay Olympia.
  2. ^ Theoi Project: Harpina.
  3. ^ Hyginus, Fabula 84 ("Oenomaus, son of Mars and Asterope, daughter of Atlas"), Fabula 250 ("Oenomaus, son of Mars by Asterie, daughter of Atlas").
  4. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke 3. 110 - 111; Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 21; he was depicted on the pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia with Sterope, whom Pausanias also took for his wife: "On the right of Zeus Oinomaos with a helmet on his head, and by him Sterope his wife, who was one of the daughters of Atlas."
  5. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1. 752
  6. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 157
  7. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5. 1. 6
  8. ^ The story of Pelops' chariot race is told by Nestor to Menelaus, in Quintus Smyrnaeus's continuation of the Iliad (IV.527-34).
  9. ^ Cicero, Tusculanae Disputationes 2.27.67 (noted in Karl Kerenyi, The Heroes of the Greeks, 1959:64).
  10. ^ Eric L. Brulotte, "The "Pillar of Oinomaos" and the Location of Stadium I at Olympia", American Journal of Archaeology 98.1 (January 1994), pp. 53-64,

參考書目[编辑]

  • Pindar, Olympian Ode, I (476 BCE)
  • Sophocles, (1) Electra, 504 (430 - 415 BCE) & (2) Oenomaus, Fr. 433 (408 BCE)
  • Euripides, Orestes, 1024-1062 (408 BCE)
  • Bibliotheca, Epitome 2, 1-9 (140 BCE)
  • Diodorus Siculus, Histories, 4.73 (1st c. BCE)
  • Hyginus, Fables, 84: Oinomaus; Poetic Astronomy, ii (1st c. CE)
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.1.3 - 7; 5.13.1; 6.21.9; 8.14.10 - 11 (ca. 160 - 176 CE)
  • Philostratus the Elder Imagines, I.30: Pelops (170 - 245 CE)
  • Philostratus the Younger, Imagines, 9: Pelops (ca. 200 - 245 CE)
  • First Vatican Mythographer, 22: Myrtilus; Atreus et Thyestes
  • Second Vatican Mythographer, 146: Oenomaus