利塔尼河

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利塔尼河

利塔尼河(阿拉伯语:نهر الليطاني‎),黎巴嫩主要河流之一。该河发源于贝卡谷地,向南流至戈兰高地附近,距以色列边境约20余公里处时,因受高地阻挡,转而向西切穿黎巴嫩山脉,在提尔以北流入地中海,全长140公里,是黎巴嫩境内第一大河。河上有水库,是黎巴嫩南部和贝卡谷地主要的灌溉水源来源。

利塔尼河下游传统上被认为是加利利地区和黎巴嫩山脉地区的分界线。1982年至2000年,其下游长期成为以色列占领区与黎巴嫩的分界线。

参考来源[编辑]

  • Ramadan, H.H., Beighley, R.E and Ramamurthy, A.S. (2013). "Temperature and precipitation trends in Lebanon’s largest river: the Litani Basin”, American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 139 (1), pp. 86–95.
  • Ramadan, H.H., Ramamurthy, A.S., and Beighley, R.E (2012). "Inter-annual temperature and precipitation variations over the Litani Basin in response to atmospheric circulation patterns”, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Volume 108, Numbers 3-4 (2012), pp. 563–577.
  • Ramadan, H.H., Beighley R.E. and Ramamurthy A.S. (2012). "Modeling Streamflow Trends for a Watershed with Limited Data: A case on the Litani Basin, Lebanon” Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57 (8), pp. 1516–1529.
  • Ramadan, H.H., Ramamurthy A.S. and Beighley R.E. (2013). "Sensitivity of the Litani Basin’s runoff in Lebanon to climate change.” International Journal of Environment and Pollution (in press).
  • Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28716-2
  • Raad, Daoud, 2004. "Localized irrigation in Qasmieh-Ras-el-Aïn: a technique to be encouraged" pdf file
  • Amery, H. A. 1993. "The Litani River of Lebanon", Geographical Review 83 (3) pp229–237.
  • Assaf, Hamed and Saadeh, Mark. "Development of an Integrated Decision Support System for Water Quality Control in the Upper Litani Basin, Lebanon", Proceedings of the iEMSs Third Biennial Meeting, "Summit on Environmental Modelling and Software". International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, Burlington, USA, July 2006.