华城

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华城
联合国教科文组织认定的世界遗产
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华城
正式名稱
英文名稱* Hwaseong Fortress
法文名稱* Forteresse de Hwaseong
基本資料
國家  大韓民國
地区** 亚洲和太平洋地区
註冊類型 文化遺產
評定標準 文化遺產ii, iii [1]
註冊歷史
註冊年份 1997年
UNESCO的记录(英文)
* 名稱依據世界遺產名錄註冊。
** 地區以聯合國教科文組織所劃分为准。

华城朝鮮語화성)是韩国京畿道水原市中央的一座堡壘。[1] 這個朝鮮堡壘朝鮮王朝正祖從1794年到1796年建成,以紀念他的父親莊獻世子。莊獻世子在不遵守他的父親英祖自殺命令的情況下,被英祖命人關進米櫃內活活餓死。華城位於首爾以南的30公里(19英里),圍繞水原中央的大部分地區,堡壘包括金正王宮宮殿。1997年經联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遺產水原川是水原主要河川,會流經山城的中央。

华城
谚文
汉字
文观部式 Hwaseong
马-赖式 Hwasŏng

目录

建造[编辑]

堡壘地圖

華城建築工程根據建築師丁若鏞設計而進行,由1794年至1796年以兩年半時間建成,丁若鏞是一名實學運動的著名領導者。實學指實踐學習,鼓勵科學和工業的使用,正祖將當時韓國中國的堡壘設計以及當代科學融入建造華城的計劃之中。而使用磚作為華城的主要建築材料以及投入丁氏設計的西洋式高效滑輪和起重機也是由於當時實學對朝鮮的影響。[2]

華城的建設也是作為萬曆朝鮮之役期間朝鮮前線崩潰的一種回應。當時在韓國建築堡壘的主導模式是為城市或城鎮作為一個簡單的防禦作用,華城還有一個單獨的山地堡壘,人民在戰爭時期可以安全撤離到此地。然而,這個山城被建造成包括牆壁,防禦堡壘和市中心的元素,四個主要門被用作城鎮出入口的門。沿著城牆建成的突出型弩台,雉樓和砲樓,具有籬笆的欄杆和城垛,是堡壘的重要防禦性元素,而牆壁也是抵檔攻擊的要點。

華城總共耗資七十萬人力,為當時的成本八十萬七千両,還有支付1500袋大米給工人。過去政府的重大基建是以徭役方式進行,但在這種情況下,工人的工資是由政府直接支付的,另一個原因實學影響的標誌。

仁祖顯然建起了這座堡壘,準備將首都從漢城遷往水原。水原被視為漢城與西海(黃海)和中國的戰略地位。國王想要對朝鮮王朝不正之風進行改革,相信水原有潛力成為朝鮮王朝新的繁榮首都。為了鼓勵水原的建設,他以一大筆特別政策去鼓獎人們以搬到水原,例如水原居民免稅十年。而仁祖還下令建設教育設施等公共工程,以更好地促進水原成為國家為首都,也籍此拱衛首都漢城。

華城建築記錄[编辑]

在正祖去世一段時間後,一張名為《華城城役儀軌》(韓語:화성성역의궤)的白紙在1800年被公開。在韓戰期間,由於華城遭到嚴重破壞,在1970年開始進行十多年的的重建工程。這些數量按華城各部分劃分,首先涵蓋「華城城役儀軌」建築計劃,包括藍圖和監事名單。接下來「華城城役儀軌」的六卷詳細說明了建築物的實際執行情況,如皇室和工人工資記錄。最後三卷是補充部分,詳細說明了毗鄰宮殿的建設。當時建設華城的人力由專業人員進行分配,按行業分工,將其分類為工頭,石匠,勞工等等。「華城城役儀軌」還詳細記錄並說明了不同材料的使用量。[3]

法文版由法國駐韓國領事亨利·查華利亞(Henry Chevalier)出版,,[4]由德文版則參考趙斗元(韓語:조두원/Cho,Doo Won )的論文來進行翻譯。[5]

主要建筑[编辑]

  • 长安门,华城北门,门楼五间,左右有双阙,门外有瓮城
  • 八达门,华城南门
  • 苍龙门,华城东门
  • 华西门,华城西门
  • 华虹门,建于正北的水门
  • 访花随柳亭,位于华虹门之东,又名东北阁楼
  • 西将台
  • 华城行宫,正门为中阳门,正殿为惠庆宫居住的奉寿堂,国王寝宫为洛南轩,还有长乐堂、景龙馆、维与宅、左翊门、右翊门、新丰楼、未老闲亭等建筑。
  • 华城乡校
  • 大有屯,位于华城西北方的国营农场
  • 万石渠,石砌水库

結構介紹[编辑]

華城城牆

城牆[编辑]

城牆的長度為5.74公里(3.57英里),長度介乎於4至6米(13-20英尺)之間,最初包圍約1.3平方公里(0.5平方英里)的土地。[6] 在平坦的地形上,建造的城牆通常比通過兩個山丘中的任何一個都高,因為較高的城牆被認為不太需要沿著山頂。護欄由石頭和磚製成,像大多數山城一樣,身高1.2米(4英尺)。所有部件維護良好,整個城牆都可以方便地行走。

4個主要城門[编辑]

1795年的堡壘有四個門:長安門(北門),華西門(西),八達門(南)和蒼龍門(東)。當中長安門和八達門是四大門之中最大的兩個,它們與漢城的南大門屋頂設計,所選用的石材和木材極為相似。事實上,長安門是韓國最大的門。而北門和南門均設有兩層的木製涼亭,華西門和蒼龍門分別位於西門和東門,只有一層。 四個主要的大門都被由守衛人員組成的小型堡壘圍護著。

現今的入口[编辑]

如今,水原「內城」需要大量居民和遊客所需的現代化道路。這些大型道路是在城牆建成的過程中建成的,1975年的重建工程中只能保留這些道路。對於其中三條步道來說,這些步道已經被重建為兩個相鄰結構之間的橋樑:

  • 進入北門的橋樑介乎北門長安門和北東敵臺之間
  • 進入東門的橋樑介乎東北弩臺與東北空心墩之間
  • 進入西門的橋樑介乎西門華西門與西北空心墩之間。此外,與八達山相關的兩個小地下通道也被保留。它們分別位於西1炮塔和南炮塔附近。

至於最大南入口,已經使用了更為激進的解決方案。四個結構(西南和東南門防守平台,南暗門和南空心墩)根本沒有重建,現在的南門八達門仍然與華城其他部分隔絕,平日被一大堆交通工具所包圍。

其他結構[编辑]

在華城城牆上的所有結構(見下面的描述)中,最引人注目的是

  • 水門
  • 剩餘的兩個烽墩,而兩層至三層樓和獨特的木製涼亭就在頂部,並擁有槍支射擊和監視的銃眼
  • 空心墩,它有五個煙囪可以使煙霧或火焰發出不同的信號。當一個人煙囪被點燃是當是區域表明和平,兩個煙囪意味著敵人被發現,三個煙囪警告說敵人即將到來,四個煙囪意思是敵人已經進入城市,五個煙囪同時亮起來是一場警戒,戰鬥已經開始了。

砲樓(포루)與鋪樓(포루)[编辑]

因為漢字在朝鮮語的發迿會出現同音異義,而砲樓和鋪樓在諺文的發音都是포루,因而產生華城幾個設防結構的命名衝突。根據官方權威文件《華城城役議軌》 (1801年), 為華城不同種類的設防結構取不同的名稱是方便分類。這樣就可以將砲台和鋪樓分類。 以下圖片集展示了這些結構在設計中的差異及作用性:

城牆上48個主要結構[编辑]

沿城牆的48個原始結構(包括已經消失的部分)可以按照其功能進行排序:[7]

華城城役儀軌 (used in the Doo Won Cho thesis[8])

其中四個結構被排除在重建之外。西南和東南門敵臺,南暗門和南空心墩均位於南門(八達門)附近。它們將繼續被清除,以提供遊客和居民所需的現代化道路。

這48個結構也可以如「首爾指南」般按照「城牆」列出,[9] 或「亞洲歷史建築」 .[10] 在這裡,這些結構以南門(使用水原公共交通的接入點)開始以逆時針方向順序列出。

  1. 南門 (남문)
  2. 南東敵臺 (남동적대)
  3. 南暗門 (남암문)
  4. 南空心墩 (남공심돈)
  5. 南水門 (남수문)
  6. 東南角樓 (동남각루)
  7. 西三雉 (동삼치)
  8. 東二舖樓 (동이포루)
  9. 烽墩 (봉돈)
  10. 東二雉 (동이치)
  11. 東砲樓 (동포루)
  12. 東一雉 (동일치)
  13. 東一舖樓 (동일포루)
  14. 蒼龍門 (창룡문)
  15. 東北弩臺 (동북노대)
  16. 東北空心墩 (동북공심돈)
  17. 東將臺 (동장대)
  18. 東暗門 (동암문)
  19. 東北砲樓 (동북포루)
  20. 北暗門 (북암문)
  21. 東北角樓 (동북각루)
  22. 華虹門 (화홍문)
  23. 北東砲樓 (북동포루)
  24. 北東雉 (북동치)
  25. 北東敵臺 (북동적대)
  26. 長安門 (장안문)
  27. 北西敵臺 (북서적대)
  28. 北西砲樓 (북서포루)
  29. 北砲樓 (북포루)
  30. 西北空心墩 (서북공심돈)
  31. 西門 (서문)
  32. 西北角樓 (서북각루)
  33. 西一雉(서일치)
  34. 西砲樓 (서포루)
  35. 西二雉 (서이치)
  36. 西弩臺 (서노대)
  37. 西將臺 (서장대)
  38. 西暗門 (서암문)
  39. 西砲樓 (서포루)
  40. 西三雉 (서삼치)
  41. 西南暗門 (서남암문)
  42. 西南甬道 (용도)
  43. 甬道西雉 (용도서치)
  44. 西南角樓 (서남각루)
  45. 甬道東雉 (용도동치)
  46. 南砲樓 (남포루)
  47. 南雉 (남치)
  48. 南西敵臺 (남서적대)


華城堡壘的另一個素描

南門 (남문)[编辑]

37°16′39″N 127°01′01″E / 37.27750°N 127.01694°E / 37.27750; 127.01694
八達門 (韓語:팔달문),通常被稱為南門 (韓語:남문),坐落於水原市中心要道之圓環上。 Its stone base is capped with a two-storey wooden pavilion surrounded by a stone wall. A small, semi-circular protective wall known as an ongseong, is located on the south side (outside) of the gate. The gate also houses a bell called Paldalmun Dongjong, which was originally cast in Gaeseong in 1080 and was refounded in 1687 by Dohwaseung, the chief priest of Manuisa Temple, for use in Buddhist ceremonies. 123 cm tall and 75 cm in diameter, it hangs from a dragon-shaped suspension ring, has a flue pipe to set the tone and has a slightly curved body - features which are typical of Korean bells of that era. This particular bell's flue pipe has a design of the dragon's tail entwined around it and is topped with a lotus flower. The top of the bell has a line of Sanskrit words around it, while the bottom is decorated with arabesque designs. The decorative nipples are interspaced with Bodisattvas holding lotus flowers. The bell is very similar in design to that in Tongdosa, which differs notably from Paldalmun's only in size.[11]

由於在韓戰期間八達門倖免於難,所以沒有經歷與城牆上其他結構的廣泛重建。 因此,一些橫樑已經廣泛下垂,所以自2010年9月開始,八達門正在進行全面拆除,修理和重新組裝門的屋頂。[12]

東南敵臺 (남동적대)[编辑]

華城南北門兩旁都設有敵臺。今天只剩下北門(長安門)得以保留。

南暗門 (남암문)[编辑]

此門已經消失。

南空心墩 (남공심돈)[编辑]

南空心墩, like that standing by Hwaseomun, was an observation tower standing beside the Suwoncheon. It is part of the section of Hwaseong which has not been restored.

南水門 (남수문)[编辑]

南水門, meaning South Floodgate, sat across the Suwoncheon at the downstream end of the city walls. The gate was a little over a kilometre from Hwahongmun, the gate at the upstream end. Construction began on February 28, 1794, was interrupted, but continued in November 1795, the structure being completed on March 25, 1796, but having been fully operational since completion of its basic structure on January 16 that year. The bridge had nine arches for the water to flow beneath: two more than Hwahongmun because of increase in flow. Above the bridge there was a large brick structure instead of the usual gatehouse, as this section of Hwaseong was one of the most vulnerable. This took up two thirds of the space above the arches, the remaining third being the bridge.

This gate was swept away in a flood in 1846. It was restored but washed away again by a flood in 1922. During the general restoration of the Fortress in 1975, no consensus was obtained on how to rebuild the gate, and the area remained reserved in its ancient status.

The issue arose again during the rehabilitation of the entire Suwon Stream, inside and outside the Fortress, that was initiated in 2006. [13]

Concerning Namsumun, the restoration was launched in June 2010 and the restored floodgate is 29.4m long, 5.9m wide and 9.3m high. The inauguration was 2012-6-9. [14]

東南角樓 (동남각루)[编辑]

37°16′42″N 127°01′11″E / 37.27833°N 127.01972°E / 37.27833; 127.01972
東南角樓, sits on top of a small rise above the former location of Namsumun. Its location serves its purpose as a lookout tower well, as much of Hwaseong and the area outside to the south and east can been seen from here.

東三雉 (동삼치)[编辑]

37°16′44″N 127°01′13″E / 37.27889°N 127.02028°E / 37.27889; 127.02028
Dongsam Chi, the third eastern turret, lies halfway from the south-east pavilion to the second eastern sentry post. Like other turrets, it extends a short distance perpendicularly from the wall to enable guards to see and attack assailants who had already reached the fortress.

東二舖樓 (동이포루)[编辑]

37°16′49″N 127°01′14″E / 37.28028°N 127.02056°E / 37.28028; 127.02056
Dong-i Poru, the second eastern sentry post, like other sentry posts, is a wooden structure sitting on a turret. Construction of this post was completed on July 3, 1796 and it was intended to defend the beacon tower. For this purpose, it extends further out from the wall than the north-western sentry post. It also lacks wooden front doors.

烽墩 (봉돈)[编辑]

37°16′53″N 127°01′17″E / 37.28139°N 127.02139°E / 37.28139; 127.02139
烽墩, the beacon tower, sits midway from Paldalmun to Changnyongmun. It is located intentionally in direct line with Haenggung so that the king could see its signals. Smokes and lights were used to signal the state of threats. The southernmost of its five chimneys was used during peacetime.

東二雉 (동이치)[编辑]

37°16′57″N 127°01′20″E / 37.28250°N 127.02222°E / 37.28250; 127.02222
東二雉, the second eastern turret, like the other nine turrets around Hwaseong, allowed soldiers to look out in many directions along the exterior of the wall. Unlike the other two eastern turrets, the outer corners of this structure are rounded, the others forming sharp right angles.

東砲樓 (동포루)[编辑]

37°17′01″N 127°01′23″E / 37.28361°N 127.02306°E / 37.28361; 127.02306
東砲樓, the eastern GunTower, lies between the two eastern turrets. Construction of the post was completed on July 16, 1796. As with other GunTowers in Hwaseong, the interior is of multiple levels to allow various angles for firearms and other weapons.

東一雉 (동일치)[编辑]

37°17′05″N 127°01′27″E / 37.28472°N 127.02417°E / 37.28472; 127.02417
Dong-il Chi, the first eastern turret, is the first turret south of the first eastern sentry post, lying 148米(486英尺) along the wall towards the beacon tower.

東一舖樓 (동일포루)[编辑]

37°17′09″N 127°01′28″E / 37.28583°N 127.02444°E / 37.28583; 127.02444
Dongil-SentryPost, the first eastern sentry post, was completed on July 10, 1796. Like the second eastern sentry post, it extends further from the wall than most posts.

東門 (동문)[编辑]

37°17′16″N 127°01′31″E / 37.28778°N 127.02528°E / 37.28778; 127.02528
蒼龍門 (창룡문), 通常被稱為東門 (동문),它位處在一個主要的路口。它的石頭基座上蓋著數層木製的亭子。朝鮮戰爭期間東門被摧毀,及後在1975年進行重建。

東北弩臺 (동북노대)[编辑]

37°17′20″N 127°01′31″E / 37.28889°N 127.02528°E / 37.28889; 127.02528
Dongbuk Nodae is one of two crossbow platforms in the fortress and is situated within reach of the east gate and has a wide field of view as it sits on a corner of the wall, enabling archers to target assailants from many angles.

東北空心墩 (동북공심돈)[编辑]

37°17′22″N 127°01′28″E / 37.28944°N 127.02444°E / 37.28944; 127.02444
東北空心墩,意指東北瞭望臺,位於蒼龍門對面。外表呈橢圓形,樓高 6.8米(22英尺),三層。可沿著旋轉形樓梯直達天臺。

東將臺 (동장대)[编辑]

37°17′18″N 127°01′23″E / 37.28833°N 127.02306°E / 37.28833; 127.02306
Dongjangdae, meaning eastern command post, stands next to Dongbuk Gongsimdon, facing Changnyongmun across an archery field. When the king was in residence in Haenggung, within the fortress walls, there were two generals and four soldiers on guard in this command post at all times. (There were five night shifts.) Each officer was armed with a bow and arrow, sword and baton. The command post is nicknamed Yeonmudae, a reference to its second function as a training camp.

東暗門 (동암문)[编辑]

37°17′14″N 127°01′17″E / 37.28722°N 127.02139°E / 37.28722; 127.02139
東暗門,為東端暗門, 位於東將臺 140米(459英尺)之上 , was used for passage of people, animals and munitions. Construction of the gate, which sits beneath a brick structure surmounted with a large round parapet, was completed on March 25, 1796.

東北舖樓 (동북포루)[编辑]

37°17′15″N 127°01′11″E / 37.28750°N 127.01972°E / 37.28750; 127.01972
東北舖樓位於北部和東部的暗門之間,保護了他們的郊外。 這個結構不能與北東砲樓(韓語:동북포루)混淆。

北暗門 (북암문)[编辑]

37°17′14″N 127°01′07″E / 37.28722°N 127.01861°E / 37.28722; 127.01861
北暗門(韓語:북암문),官方稱為第3北暗門(韓語:제3북암문)是三個原結構中唯一剩下的暗門。它靠近東北角樓。

東北角樓 (동북각루)[编辑]

37°17′15″N 127°01′06″E / 37.28750°N 127.01833°E / 37.28750; 127.01833
The north-east pavilion is known as Dongbuk Gangnu and nicknamed Banghwasuryujeong. It sits above Yongyeon, a pond surrounded by a small garden. It was originally intended to be the second battle command post, though its scenic location made it a place favoured instead for feasts.

華虹門 (화홍문)[编辑]

37°17′15″N 127°01′04″E / 37.28750°N 127.01778°E / 37.28750; 127.01778
Hwahongmun, otherwise known as Buksumun, is the gate under which the Suwoncheon flows on entering the area encompassed by Hwaseong and exited through Namsumun. The gate has the obvious function of being a bridge, but also housed cannons for defensive purposes. The Suwoncheon was widened at this point and the gate has seven arches through which it passes.

北東砲樓 (북동포루)[编辑]

37°17′19″N 127°01′00″E / 37.28861°N 127.01667°E / 37.28861; 127.01667
Bukdong-GunTower sits between Janganmun and Hwahongmun. This tower controls the North-East outskirts of the Fortress, and protects Hwahongmun. It was completed on September 23, 1794. Not to be confused with 동북포루, the East-North SentryPost.

北東雉 (북동치)[编辑]

37°17′21″N 127°00′54″E / 37.28917°N 127.01500°E / 37.28917; 127.01500
北東雉(韓語:북동치),是位處東北的雉樓。坐落於北東敵臺的東邊。

北東敵臺 (북동적대)[编辑]

37°17′21″N 127°00′53″E / 37.28917°N 127.01472°E / 37.28917; 127.01472
Bukdong Jeokdae is a platform immediately to the east of Janganmun. It housed a cannon to protect the gate and its ongseong.

長安門 (장안문)[编辑]

37°17′20″N 127°00′51″E / 37.28889°N 127.01417°E / 37.28889; 127.01417
長安門 (韓語:장안문),通常被稱為北門 (韓語:북문),為南韓最大城門。亦有部分人稱之全球最大, as it is through this gate that visitors from Seoul will have entered Suwon and this would be in keeping with King Jeongjo's original desire to move the capital of the country to Suwon. Janganmun's stone base is capped with a two-storey wooden pavilion. A small, semi-circular protective wall known as an ongseong, is located outside the gate. The gate was destroyed in the Korean War and reconstructed in the 1970s.

北西敵臺 (북서적대)[编辑]

37°17′19″N 127°00′49″E / 37.28861°N 127.01361°E / 37.28861; 127.01361
Bukseo Jeokdae is a platform immediately to the west of Janganmun. It housed a cannon to protect the gate and its ongseong.

北西砲樓 (북서포루)[编辑]

37°17′14″N 127°00′44″E / 37.28722°N 127.01222°E / 37.28722; 127.01222
Bukseo-GunTower is adjacent to Bukseo Jeokdae. Made from black bricks, it is divided into three storeys internally by boards. Firearms were secreted on these floors. The roof is unusual in design, being gabled on the inner side (towards the wall) and angled to the outer side (away from the wall). Construction was completed on September 24, 1794.

北砲樓 (북포루)[编辑]

37°17′14″N 127°00′44″E / 37.28722°N 127.01222°E / 37.28722; 127.01222
Buk-SentryPost is another Sentry Post containing hidden firearms. This is closer to Hwaseomun than to Janganmun. Today a tourist information centre and public toilet stand on the north side of the structure. Construction was completed on February 20, 1795.

西北空心墩 (서북공심돈)[编辑]

37°17′09″N 127°00′34″E / 37.28583°N 127.00944°E / 37.28583; 127.00944
Seobuk Gongsimdon is an observation tower standing directly adjacent to Hwaseomun, giving it the obvious function of being a lookout post to protect the gate. Built from bricks on three sides, its inside is partitioned into three storeys with two wooden floors, from which soldiers could fire cannons and other firearms. It is said that, in 1797, on visiting Suwon, King Jeongjo claimed to his companions that this was the first gongsimdon in Korea. Its construction was completed on March 10, 1796.

西門 (서문)[编辑]

37°17′08″N 127°00′35″E / 37.28556°N 127.00972°E / 37.28556; 127.00972
華西門 (韓語:화서문)是華城的西門。它的石頭基座上蓋著一層層的木製亭子。

西北角樓 (서북각루)[编辑]

37°17′04″N 127°00′30″E / 37.28444°N 127.00833°E / 37.28444; 127.00833
Seobuk Gangnu, facing a hill known as Sukjisan, is the lookout post immediately anti-clockwise from Hwaseomun. With less of a wide field of view than from the other side of the gate, it is shorter than the gongsimdon a short distance to the north-east. The pavilion's ground floor is fitted with an under-floor heating system.

西一雉 (서일치)[编辑]

37°17′02″N 127°00′29″E / 37.28389°N 127.00806°E / 37.28389; 127.00806
Seo-il Chi, meaning West Turret 1, is a small bulge in the wall to allow soldiers to fire upon anyone attempting to scale Hwaseong from the outside.

西砲樓 (서포루)[编辑]

37°16′57″N 127°00′31″E / 37.28250°N 127.00861°E / 37.28250; 127.00861
Seo-GunTower sits partway up the hill named Paldalsan when heading anti-clockwise from Hwaseomun to Seojangdae. It controls the outskirts of Mount Paldal, and protects the Western Command Post (seojangdae). It was completed on May 30, 1796, and was one of Hwaseong's most heavily armed posts. This structure shall not be confused with the Seo-SentryPost.

西二雉 (서이치)[编辑]

37°16′54″N 127°00′34″E / 37.28167°N 127.00944°E / 37.28167; 127.00944
Seo-i Chi, the second turret on the west of Hwaseong, stands just below Seonodae on the slopes of Paldalsan. Its purpose, as with any turret, was to provide a location to attack people trying to scale the walls.

西弩臺 (서노대)[编辑]

37°16′51″N 127°00′36″E / 37.28083°N 127.01000°E / 37.28083; 127.01000
Seonodae is an octagonal, steep-stepped, black brick platform directly adjacent to Seojangdae at the crest of Paldalsan when heading uphill from Hwaseomun. From here, archers could attack assailants in a wide range of directions and facing downhill, too.

西將臺 (서장대)[编辑]

37°16′51″N 127°00′36″E / 37.28083°N 127.01000°E / 37.28083; 127.01000
Seojangdae, meaning western command post, sits atop Paldalsan, a small hill over which the higher section of Hwaseong runs. Seojangdae was destroyed by a fire in 1996 and was reconstructed afterwards. However, on May 1, 2006, an arsonist attacked Seojangdae. The arsonist reportedly caused the fire by lighting his clothes and underwear with a cigarette lighter. The fire caused about ₩6 billion in damage (about $6 million), destroying the upper floor of the watchtower. Seojangdae was reconstructed in 2007.

西暗門 (서암문)[编辑]

37°16′49″N 127°00′36″E / 37.28028°N 127.01000°E / 37.28028; 127.01000
Seoammun, the West Secret Gate, lies 50米(164英尺) south of Seojangdae. Sitting on a forested part of the ridge of the hill Paldalsan, it was designed to provide access in and out under cover. Today, it is easily accessible from the road outside, being located near Jindallae (Azalea) Public Toilets.

西舖樓 (서포루)[编辑]

37°16′45″N 127°00′35″E / 37.27917°N 127.00972°E / 37.27917; 127.00972
Seo-SentryPost sits on a turret projecting from the wall 140米(459英尺). It controls and protects the West Secret Gate that sits immediately southwards. The structure was completed on August 18, 1796. This structure shall not be confused with the Seo-GunTower, which sits on the other side of Seojangdae.

西三雉 (서삼치)[编辑]

37°16′39″N 127°00′39″E / 37.27750°N 127.01083°E / 37.27750; 127.01083
Seosam Chi, the third western turret, has the same function as the other nine turrets around Hwaseong. It sits just north of the south-western spur.

西南暗門 (서남암문)[编辑]

37°16′38″N 127°00′42″E / 37.27722°N 127.01167°E / 37.27722; 127.01167
Seonam Ammun is the beginning of a path to Seonam Gangnu, the south-western pavilion. The gate used to contain a house known as a posa, and Seonam Posa, the south-western posa, sat above the gate, enabling soldiers to keep watch and issue alerts.

西南甬道 (용도)[编辑]

37°16′35″N 127°00′43″E / 37.27639°N 127.01194°E / 37.27639; 127.01194
為了控制沿著八達山的山脊,華城堡壘有一個甬道。它始於山頂的西南暗門,經過八達山的西南端,最後到達西南角樓,又名華陽樓(韓語:화양루)。如今這個位置提供了飽覽水原市的大景觀,包括水原站

甬道西雉 (용도서치)[编辑]

37°16′34″N 127°00′44″E / 37.27611°N 127.01222°E / 37.27611; 127.01222
兩個雉樓位於西南暗門到西南角樓方向的中間。它在暗門右側,西南一雉(서남일치)延伸至華城西部,俯瞰著水原市向西湖方湖。它也被稱為勇道西雉(용도서치)。

西南角樓 (서남각루)[编辑]

37°16′32″N 127°00′44″E / 37.27556°N 127.01222°E / 37.27556; 127.01222
西南角樓(韓語:서남각루),華陽樓(韓語:화양루),位於西南暗門的尖端,可以看到許多水原建築,包括水原站

甬道東雉 (용도동치)[编辑]

37°16′35″N 127°00′44″E / 37.27639°N 127.01222°E / 37.27639; 127.01222
這兩個雉樓位於西南暗門的西南方向到西南角樓的中間。即在西南角樓的右邊,西南二稚(서남이치)一直往東延伸,俯瞰著南部八達門的城牆(現在八達山上已經變得樹木茂盛了,但現在看不到)。它通常被稱為甬道東雉 (용도동치)。

南砲樓 (남포루)[编辑]

37°16′38″N 127°00′48″E / 37.27722°N 127.01333°E / 37.27722; 127.01333
南砲樓(韓語:남포루)坐在甬道和南堡樓之間,並控制堡壘的郊區,,特別接近八達門。

南雉 (남치)[编辑]

37°16′38″N 127°00′52″E / 37.27722°N 127.01444°E / 37.27722; 127.01444
南雉(韓語:남치),南雉樓(韓語:남치루),位處八達門上的八達山山坡上的城牆上,突然出現於南砲樓下面。

南西敵臺 (남서적대)[编辑]

當時南北門兩旁都是守衛臺。今天,只剩下北門守衛臺保留下來。

1795年8日大巡行[编辑]

正祖因父親莊獻世子墓園—永祐園風水不佳,且在墓穴中有蛇,因此將其從楊州拜峰山遷移至水原華山腳下,並更名為顯隆園。原位於華山腳下的水原郡官衙及村莊奉命一同搬遷至八達山腳下。而每年都為正祖都會組織一次皇室巡行,敬拜他父親的墳墓。1795年二月的皇家巡行最大型的一次,適逢正祖母親獻敬王后六十歲生辰,同時也是其已故父親誕辰六十週年。(請緊記,在韓國的出生日是算1歲,所以韓國人的60歲生日是指61歲)。在1795年的巡行是一個巨大的事件,動員共5,661人和1,417匹馬。[15]

像往常一樣,這個庭園事件也被皇家圖書館記錄下來,根據《園幸乙卯整理儀軌》(韓語:원행을묘뎡니의궤)(乙卯= 1795年)。每一個儀軌,本文件的幾個「正式副本」已經被確認(正本更為珍貴,為國王使用而保留)。 該儀軌的主要文件是八屏: 華城行幸圖 屛風(화성행행도 병풍)如今,這個屏風存在三個副本中,其中一個是棕褐色的,[16]另是一個藍色(見下面的畫廊)和一個彩色,[17][17] 而朝鮮國王使用的副本。最後一份可以在三星藝術博物館看到,並在2005-04-15被指定為國寶1430號。[18]

這些畫作描繪了巡行的重要事件,儘管畫廊小組的順序並不反映巡行實際的程序。[19]

  1. 在華城的聖廟進行祭祀, 1795年2月11日
  2. 文武考試, 1795年2月11日
  3. 在奉壽堂為正祖母親舉行六十生辰宴會, 1795年2月13日
  4. 洛南軒的養老宴, 1795年2月14日
  5. 在守將臺的夜間軍事演習, 1795年2月12日
  6. 世祖在得中亭進行射箭活動, 1795年2月14日
  7. 巡行期間回到行宮, 1795年2月15日
  8. 在鷺梁津巡行期間穿越漢江上的一座浮橋, 1795年2月16日

在奉壽堂舉行的宴會,像當時的傳統繪畫類似。然而,描繪返回行宮的巡行的場景的組成形式是「之」的形狀,這是著名的法院畫家金弘道的終身畫作的特徵。畫廊最後一幕描繪了巡行隊伍橫渡在漢江一座浮橋上展現出獨特的作品,這在當時在皇室巡行畫中很少見到類似場景。[18]

根據皇室記錄,正祖的母親獻敬王后對於如此宏偉的規模和驚人精確度的屏風感到非常高興,她獎勵了七位參與其中的畫家。分別是崔得賢(韓語:최득현)、金得臣(韓語:김득신)、李命奎(韓語:이명규),張漢宗(韓語:장한종)(1768 - 1815),尹碩根(韓語:윤석근),許寔(韓語:허식)(1762 - ?)和李寅文(韓語:이인문)。

華城聖廟展拜
화성성묘전배
洛南軒放榜
낙남헌방방
奉壽堂進饌
봉수당진찬
洛南軒養老宴
낙남헌양로연
西將臺夜操
서장대야조
得中亭御射
득중정어사
還御行列
환어행렬
漢江舟橋還御
한강주교환어
華城行幸圖 屛風 화성행행도 병풍


這些小組和山城的軍事圖之間的比較很有趣:庭園畫家的重點似乎更多地針對文官(例如: 龍淵在何處?以及如何通過北暗門(북암문)到達這個池塘?)。而不是關注軍事(例如東將臺在圖中消失了)。其中一個原因被認為是出於某種軍事「機密」的考慮。

華城全圖
화성전도
華城行幸圖 屛風
화성행행도 병풍(5)
軍事地圖與朝臣地圖

重建和維修[编辑]

華城主要的重建工作是在1970年代進行,雖然在之後經過都定期維護。 在下列表中概括了各項重建的成本(韓圓₩)(來自京畿道的數據)。[20]

日期 區域 結構 週圍 總計
1975年1月 長安門-西將台 281,144,000 11,770,000
1975年2月 西將台-八達門 192,024,000 4,190,000
1976年 北水門-蒼龍門 289,150,000 137,650,000
1977年 長安門-北水門 46,944,000 133,900,000
1978年 蒼龍門-甬道 148,088,000 234,690,000
總共 957,350,000 522,200,000 1,479,550,000
  • 直至2008年冬天水原市議會正在對城牆進行維護,而南門的屋頂正在進行徹底的拆除和重建。 [12]
  • 直至2011年3月,東北空心燉開始進行維護工程
  • 南水門的全面維護工作在2010年6月展開,實際閘長29.4米,寬5.9米,高9.3米。重開典禮是2012年6月9日。[14]

節日和表演[编辑]

華城有幾個值得觀看的表演和節日。大部分表演在行宮前面的廣場進行,如下。

週末表演[编辑]

在三月至十一月的每個星期六下午二時舉行各種傳統表演。

武術表演[编辑]

二十四武術表演是按照正祖國王時代他所採用的慣例而進行的演示。二十四武術表演在1790年由李德木和朴齊家以及武術大家白東秀(韓語:백동수)製作武術教學的教科書,教科書大多內容是由朝鮮王朝的藝術所組成的。這些武術是由華城的士兵在壯勇營(장용엉)的監督下所練習的。示範活動由3月至11月11日(星期一除外)每天早上11時,而12月僅在星期六和星期日舉行。

皇家衛隊儀式[编辑]

這個儀式是在重建十九世紀九十年代在華城的皇家衛隊儀式,由被提拔為「訓練守衛」(韓語:훈련수위)的皇室衛兵。當時在韓國最大的軍營中有一萬二千人守衛。當正祖國王於1789年將他父親的遺體搬到水原時,他命名為顯隆園(韓語:현륭원),並派兵從這個營中守衛新園址。1793年將水原城的名稱從水原地改為華城,在牆內修建了一個附屬於華城的壯勇營(韓語:장용엉)。根據華城的官方網站表示,這個表演將從3月到11月每個星期日的下午2點舉行。

虛構描述[编辑]

華城堡壘是韓國電視劇正祖暗殺之謎-8天的拍攝場地。該部電視劇描述1795年正祖為他母親獻敬王后60歲生日所組織的慶典,同時也紀念了他已故父親莊獻世子六十歲生日。[21]

劇本是基於2006年由午世英(오세영)撰寫的小說《遠行[22](원행)。劇中除虛構的元素之外,主要參考兩個歷史的來源。恨中錄序列中許多部分被廣泛使用,紀錄在莊獻世子死亡之前(1762年)的閃回部分,而朝鮮皇室圖書館的官方文件則用於1795年的建設華城的活動紀錄文件:《園幸乙卯整理儀軌》(원행을묘뎡니의궤)以及關於華城整體的《華城城役儀軌》(화성성역의궤)[23][24]

遊覽提示[编辑]

華城提供列車遊城服務,它由一輛動力車和三輛乘用車組成。電動車的前部具有龍頭的形式,象徵著正祖國王的權威和強大的能力。乘客車類似於國王的轎車椅子,以顯示皇家權威和方便觀眾遊覽沿途景色。 [25]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 世界文化遺產:華城. 教科文組織. [5 August 2014]. (原始内容存档于22 August 2014).  引用错误:带有name属性“heritage”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  2. ^ Setton 1997,第61页
  3. ^ (英文)Hwaseong Fortress (Description). Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea. [2016-01-13]. 
  4. ^ Chevalier 1898,第384–396页
  5. ^ Doo Won Cho 2010,第I,82–214页
  6. ^ Pratt 2006,第142页
  7. ^ Doo Won Cho 2010,第III,12–14页
  8. ^ Doo Won Cho 2010,第III,5页
  9. ^ (英文)Hwaseong Fortress. The Seoul Guide. [2013-04-25]. 
  10. ^ (英文)Hwaseong Fortress. Asian Historical Architecture. [2013-04-25]. 
  11. ^ Paldalmundongjong. South Korean Government Cultural Properties Administration. [2008-11-25]. (原始内容存档于2012-02-16). 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 (英文)Disassemble and Repair Project of Paldalmun starts in September. Suwon City Council. 2010-09-17 [2010-10-01]. (原始内容存档于2013-07-02). 
  13. ^ Realization of Ecological Suwon Stream. Human City Suwon, Notice and News. 2011-06-28 [2013-04-25]. (原始内容存档于2013-07-03). 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 Floodgate of Hwaseong Fortress Restored. KBS World (English). 2012-06-09 [2013-04-25]. 
  15. ^ (英文)Performance Information. Suwon-City: Travel & Tourism. [2013-05-08]. (原始内容存档于2010-05-29). 
  16. ^ KCC. Hwaseong Haenghaeng. Database. Korean Copyright Commission. 2013. (原始内容存档于2013-07-03).  (韓文)
  17. ^ KCC. Kim Deuksin Hwaseongneunghaengdo. Database. Korean Copyright Commission. 2013. (原始内容存档于2016-04-10).  (韓文)
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 cha.go.kr. Royal Parade to Hwaseong Fortress. Database. Cultural Heritage Administration. 2013 [2013-05-08]. 
  19. ^ leeum. Royal Procession to the Ancestral Tomb in Hwasong. Database. Samsung Foundation. 2013 [2013-05-08]. 
  20. ^ Doo Won Cho 2010,第III,263–268页
  21. ^ Chung, Ah-young. 朝鮮國王正祖文藝復興. 韓國時報. 13 November 2007 [2013-04-02]. (原始内容存档于24 February 2012). 
  22. ^ Oh Seyeong 2006.
  23. ^ Chevalier & 1800 p. 384-396.
  24. ^ Doo Won Choo & 2010 I, p. 82-213.
  25. ^ (英文)http://english.swcf.or.kr/?p=13&mode=view&idx=335&rIdx=99999203

參考書目[编辑]

  • Haboush, JaHyun Kim. The Memoirs of Lady Hyegyong: The Autobiographical Writings of a Crown Princess of Eighteenth-Century Korea. University of California Press. 1996: 329. ISBN 978-0520200555. 
  • Oh, Seyeong. Journey. 제목:원행; 저자:오세영; 출판사:예담. Yedam (Wisdom House). 2006: 315. ISBN 9788-9591-3167-9.  (韓文)
  • Pratt, Keith. Everlasting Flower. Reaktion Book Ldt, London. 2006: 320. 

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