战略情报局

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战略情报局
(Office of Strategic Services)
Office of Strategic Services Insignia.svg
OSS肩徽章
機構概要
成立時間 1942年6月13日
解散時間 1945年9月20日
後繼機構 中央情报局(CIA)
僱員數 約13,000人[1]

战略情报局英语Office of Strategic Services,OSS、美國戰略情報處)是美国二战期间成立的一个情报组织,由富蘭克林·德拉諾·羅斯福总统(小罗斯福)下令成立。该组织即为后来中央情报局(CIA)的前身,二战结束后杜鲁门总统将其解散。

历史[编辑]

该组织的前身为信息协调办公室(Office of the Coordinator of Information,COI),在二战后,这一机构的职能同诸如联邦调查局等组织相重合。参谋长联席会议希望将其置于自己的掌控之下。小罗斯福则希望能将COI负责国外情报的部门留下,使其处在军方的控制之外。COI剩下的这部分机构就成为了战略情报局,小罗斯福在1942年6月13日下令成立战略情报局,还指派了曾在英国情报机构工作过的陸軍將領威廉·唐諾文英语William J. Donovan以文官身份担任该局的局长。OSS的职责是收集和分析情报以供参谋长联席会议使用,同时还要领导其成员执行任务。[2]1943年小罗斯福表示,要在战后撤销这个单位。杜鲁门就职后不久就解散了它,但留下了其间谍和情报部门。1946年杜鲁门成立了中央情报组,同时将战略情报局的成员转移到该部门,日后这个组织改名为中央情报局[3]

机构[编辑]

其分支机构包括秘密情报部门,特别行动部门(Special Operations),行动小组(Operational Groups)[4]心理战活动部门(Morale Operations),反间谍部门(X-2)等。[5]情报部门的职责便是派遣间谍获取情报。特别行动部门负责在欧洲亚洲组织游击活动。比如,在诺曼底登陆前,这个部门和英国的特别行动机构(Special Operations Executive)一道,将许多军官训练并越过封锁线派遣到欧洲同当地的抵抗组织一起战斗。[6]行动小组则派遣军官进入敌占区,训练并武装当地人进行抵抗活动。行动小组在意大利希腊南斯拉夫挪威法国中国训练了数千人的别动队同当地占领军作战。[7]战略情报局还联合海军部同中國國民政府军统局共同成立了中美特种技术合作所,以加强情报交流[8]。心理战活动部门主要进行打击敌方士气的活动,如散播谣言、发放传单、干扰敌方电台等。[9]为了方便其成员活动,战略情报局还开发许多新奇的装备,如传递信息用的空芯硬币、藏在火柴盒里的袖珍照相机、价格低廉的单发“解放者”手枪(这种手枪的改进型被中央情报局在越南战争中再度使用)等。[10]

圖片[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

腳注
引用

參考文獻[编辑]

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