肛欲期

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肛欲期,又稱肛門期,在佛洛伊德性心理发展理论中,形容小孩過了口欲期,到了約18至36個月大的時候,感受到刺激肛門時帶來的新奇感覺。在這時期會發現自己會產生糞便,而很興奮,這時就是家長教小孩到馬桶上廁所的時候。如果小孩在肛欲期得不到滿足便很容易在長大後出現肛門性格,如吝嗇、頑固、倔強,以及很容易會有潔癖

佛洛伊德認為這個是人類生長的第二個時期,接著便會到性蕾期

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Parents' role 父母的角色

As mentioned before the ability for the children to be successful in this stage is solely dependent upon their parents and the approach they use towards toilet training. 如前所述,兒童在這個階段取得成功的能力完全取決於他們的父母以及他們用於上廁所訓練的方法

Freud believed that parents should promote the use of toilet training with praise and rewards. 弗洛伊德認為,父母應該用表揚和獎勵來推動如廁訓練。

The use of positive reinforcement after using the toilet at the appropriate times encourages positive outcomes. 在適當的時間使用廁所後使用正向強化鼓勵了正向的結果。

正向強化-女兒收拾玩具則父親給糖,如果女兒確實收拾玩具因而變得更勤快了,則糖是正強化物,正強化了收拾東西的行為。positive reinforcement -A father gives candy to his daughter when she picks up her toys. If the frequency of picking up the toys increases, the candy is a positive reinforcer (to reinforce the behavior of cleaning up).

負向強化-父母反覆嘮叨叫孩子打掃衛生後,孩子為了避免前述情況的發生而打掃衛生。此處,父母的嘮叨是孩子想要避免的事件,因而負強化了孩子打掃衛生的行為。 Negative reinforcement- A child cleans his or her room, and this behavior is followed by the parent stopping "nagging" or asking the child repeatedly to do so. Here, the nagging serves to negatively reinforce the behavior of cleaning because the child wants to remove that aversive stimulus of nagging.


This will help reinforce the feeling that the child is capable of controlling their bladder. 這將有助於加強孩子能夠控制他們的膀胱的感覺。

The parents help make the outcome of this stage a positive experience which in turn will lead to a competent, productive, and creative adult. This stage is also important in the child's future relationships with authority. 父母幫助使這一階段的成果成為正向的經驗,反過來又會導致成為一個有能力,有成果,有創造力的成人。這個階段對於孩子未來與權威的關係也很重要。


According to Freud's Psychosexual Theory, parents need to be very careful in how they react to their children during this sensitive stage. 根據弗洛伊德的心理性愛理論,父母在這個敏感階段對於他們如何對孩子做出反應需要非常小心。


During this stage children test their parents, the authority figures, on how much power they really have as opposed to how much room the child has to make his or her own decisions. 在這個階段,孩子們測試他們的父母 ,這權威人物,他們真正擁有多少權力,而不是孩子有多少空間做出自己的決定。

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肛門滯留型人格 Anal-retentive personality

The negative reactions from their parents,

such as early or harsh toilet training, can lead the child to become an anal-retentive personality.

來自父母的負面反應,如太早或嚴厲的如廁訓練,可能導致孩子成為肛門滯留型人格。


If the parents tried forcing the child to learn to control their bowel movements, the child may react by deliberately holding back  in rebellion.

如果父母試圖強迫孩子學會控制他們的排便,那麼孩子可能因叛逆而蓄意憋住大便。

They will form into an adult who hates mess, is obsessively    
tidy, punctual, and respectful to authority. These adults can sometimes be stubborn and be very careful with their money.

他們將會成為一個討厭雜亂無章的成年人,執著於整潔,守時,並尊重權威。 這些成年人有時可能會很固執,而且用錢很謹慎。

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肛門排出型人格 Anal-expulsive personality

The opposite of these adults would be anal expulsive adults. Such adults underwent liberal toilet training as opposed to the above reaction. 這些成年人的反面是肛門排出型成年人。這些成年人接受了自由的廁所訓練,與上述反應相反.

These adults, as children, usually relieved themselves at inappropriate times. 這些成年人,在孩童時,通常在不恰當的時候排便。

As children, they soiled their pants whenever they pleased in rebellion against using the toilet. 在孩童時,他們會弄髒褲子每當他們高興時 作為因叛逆而反抗使用廁所 They did not like to be ordered how and when they should use the toilet. 他們不喜歡被命令如何以及何時應該使用廁所。

These adults will want to share things with their peers and give things away. 這些成年人會希望與同齡人分享事物,並給予東西。

They can sometimes be messy, disorganized, and rebellious. They will also be inconsiderate of others' feelings. 他們有時候會是雜亂無章和叛逆。他們也會不顧別人的感受。


However, a child who has successfully completed this stage will be characterized as having used proper toilet training techniques throughout toilet training years and will successfully move on to the next stage of Freud's psychosexual developmental stages. 然而,一個已經成功完成這個階段的孩子的特點是在整個如廁訓練中使用了適當的如廁訓練,並將成功進入弗洛伊德下一階段的心理性發育階段。

Although the anal stage seems to be about proper toilet training, it is also about controlling behaviors and urges. 雖然肛門階段似乎是關於適當的如廁訓練,它也是關於控制行為和衝動。


A child needs to learn certain boundaries when he or she is young so that in the future there will not be contention regarding what is overstepping the boundaries. 小孩在年輕的時候需要學習一定的界線,以便將來不會出現超越界線的爭論。