馬盧拉

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馬盧拉
ܡܥܠܘܠܐ
معلولا
城鎮
馬盧拉
馬盧拉
馬盧拉在Syria的位置
馬盧拉
馬盧拉
在敘利亞的位置
坐标:33°50′39″N 36°32′48″E / 33.8442°N 36.5467°E / 33.8442; 36.5467
國家  叙利亚
大马士革农村省
古塔法區
Nahiyah 馬盧拉
海拔 1,500 米(4,900 英尺)
人口(2004年普查)[1]
 • 總計 2,762

馬盧拉帝國亞拉姆語ܡܥܠܘܠܐ‎,Maʿlūlā;阿拉伯语:معلولا‎,Maʿlūlā)是敘利亞大馬士革農村省下的一個城鎮。這個城鎮距離大馬士革東北56公里,建造在高低起伏的山坡,海拔超過1500米。它是僅存三個說西亞拉姆語城鎮,並因此知名,另兩個是鄰近的村莊賈比亞丁和亞-撒哈拉。

辭源[编辑]

Maʿlūlā是源自亞拉姆語詞彙maʿʿəlāܡܥܠܐ‎),意味為入口。到現在城鎮由西新亞拉姆語為主流。

氣候[编辑]

馬盧拉气候平均数据
月份 1月 2月 3月 4月 5月 6月 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 12月 全年
平均高温​℃(℉) 4
(39)
5
(41)
7
(45)
11
(52)
15
(59)
19
(66)
22
(72)
24
(75)
18
(64)
14
(57)
10
(50)
5
(41)
12.8
(55.1)
平均低温​℃(℉) −3
(27)
−2
(28)
0
(32)
4
(39)
8
(46)
12
(54)
14
(57)
16
(61)
12
(54)
8
(46)
4
(39)
−1
(30)
6
(42.8)
平均降雪日数​ 9 6 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 28
来源 #1:World Meteorological Organization,[2] Hong Kong Observatory (sun 1961–1990)[3]
来源 #2:BBC Weather (record highs and lows)[4]

人口[编辑]

據敘利亞人口中央統計局統計,馬盧拉2004年人口2,762人。[1]但是大馬士革人口來度假的緣故,夏天人口增加到約10,000。[5]馬盧拉半個世紀前居住人口15.000。[6]

人口按宗教信仰包括基督教徒(主要是東正教和默基特礼天主教)和穆斯林。穆斯林教徒的遺產並無亞拉伯化特別引人注目,因為大多數其他敘利亞人也皈依伊斯蘭教多個世紀,卻受到阿拉伯語影響轉向阿拉伯人種族認同。[7]

語言[编辑]

它和兩個鄰近城鎮亞-撒哈拉(阿拉伯语:(الصرخه (بخعة‎)和賈比亞丁(阿拉伯语:جبّعدين‎),是僅有還在說亞拉姆語西支方言的地區。學術確認耶穌之亞拉姆語也屬於這一分支。因此Ma'loula代表一世紀亞拉姆語,即是耶穌自己的亞拉姆語,人類語言學研究的重要來源。但這不完全等同拿撒勒之耶穌一世紀早期所說的方言,媒體經常誤讀這點。[8]和其他主城的距離加上孤立的地理位置,保證了這塊語言綠洲超過1500年的長壽。然而現代道路交通,以及阿拉伯語電視和印刷媒體-以及最近一段時間的國家政策-侵蝕這這些語言遺產。

修道院[编辑]

There are two important monasteries in Ma'loula: Greek Catholic Mar Sarkis and Greek Orthodox Mar Thecla.

Mar Sarkis[编辑]

St. Mar Sarkis Monastery

One of the oldest surviving monasteries in Syria. It was built on the site of a pagan temple, and has elements which go back to the fifth to sixth century Byzantine period.[9] Mar Sarkis is the Arabic name for Saint Sergius, an Roman soldier who was executed for his Christian beliefs. This monastery still maintains its solemn historical character. Mar Sarkis has two of the oldest icons in the world, one depicting the Last Supper.

Mar Taqla[编辑]

Mar Thecla Monastery

This monastery holds the remains of St Taqla (Thecla), which the second-century Acts of Paul and Thecla accounts a noble virgin and pupil of St. Paul. According to later legend not in the Acts, Taqla was being pursued by soldiers of her father to capture her because of her Christian faith. She came upon a mountain, and after praying, the mountain split open and let her escape through. The town gets its name from this gap or entrance in the mountain. However, there are many variations to this story among the residents of Ma'loula.

Other monasteries[编辑]

There are also the remains of numerous monasteries, convents, churches, shrines and sanctuaries. There are some that lie in ruins, while others continue to stand, defying age. Many pilgrims come to Ma'loula, both Muslim and Christian, and they go there to gain blessings and make offerings.

View over the town of Ma'loula from East to West (2007)

敘利亞內戰[编辑]

2013年9月,努斯拉陣線與敘政府軍在馬盧拉交戰。[10]

2013年10月21日,反政府武裝攻佔馬盧拉。[11]10月28日被政府軍收復。[11]

努斯拉陣線於2013年12月3日再度攻佔馬盧拉。[12]2014年4月14日,敘軍在真主黨的幫助下收復馬盧拉。[13][14]

參看[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. 1.0 1.1 General Census of Population and Housing 2004 Archive.is存檔,存档日期2013-01-12. Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Rif Dimashq Governorate. (阿拉伯文)
  2. World Weather Information Service – Aleppo. World Meteorological Organization. [10 November 2012]. 
  3. Climatological Information for Aleppo, Syria. Hong Kong Observatory. [10 November 2012]. 
  4. Average Conditions Ma'loula, Syria. BBC Weather. [10 November 2012]. 
  5. [1][永久失效連結]
  6. Sly, Liz. Language of Jesus clings to life. Chicago Tribune. 2003-03-12. 
  7. Provence, Michael. The Great Syrian Revolt and the Rise of Arab Nationalism. University of Texas Press. 2005: 123. ISBN 0-292-70680-4. 
  8. Black, Ian. Endangered Aramaic language makes a comeback in Syria. The Guardian (London). 2009-04-14. 
  9. Ross Burns, The Monuments of Syria, I. B. Taurus, 3rd edition 2009, p. 193.
  10. Syria rebels withdraw from ancient Christian town of Maaloula. BBC News. September 6, 2013. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 存档副本. [2013-12-03]. (原始内容存档于2013-12-07). 
  12. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/527153/20131203/syria-abducted-nuns-islamist-rebels-maaloula-christians.htm
  13. http://news.yahoo.com/syria-army-retakes-christian-town-maalula-090238420.html
  14. BBC News - Syria rebels driven from Christian town of Maaloula. BBC News. [25 October 2014]. 

外部連結[编辑]

坐标33°50′39″N 36°32′48″E / 33.84417°N 36.54667°E / 33.84417; 36.54667

Template:Rif Dimashq Governorate