牛津拼写

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牛津拼写英语:Oxford spelling),也称为牛津英语词典拼写(Oxford English Dictionary spelling)、牛津式(Oxford style)或牛津英语拼写(Oxford English spelling),[1]英语的一种拼写方式,是牛津大学出版社(OUP)用于其在英国国内的出版物的标准拼写方式,包括《牛津英语词典》(Oxford English Dictionary)以及权威英式写作指南“Hart's Rules”,根据梅里亚姆-韦伯斯特,一些“注重词源”的出版社也会使用牛津拼写。[2]

牛津拼写中最广为人知的就是推荐使用“-ize”后缀,例如“organize”和“recognize”,尽管当代英式英语中“-ise”更常用[3]。该拼写涉及约200个动词,推荐“-ize”是因为它更符合多数“-ize”动词的希腊语词根“-izo (-ιζω)”, of most -ize verbs.[4]除了牛津大学出版社的牛津词典以外,使用“-ize”拼写的英语词典出版社还包括卡塞尔英语Cassell (publisher)柯林斯朗文英语Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English[5]牛津拼写常用于英国的科研期刊(例如《自然》)及一些国际组织(例如联合国及其下属机构)。[6][7]它常用于学术、公文、科技的写作,面向国际的读者群。在电子文档中,牛津拼写使用IETF语言标签en-GB-oxendict(旧作en-GB-oed)来声明。[8]

典型特征[编辑]

牛津拼写最典型的特征就是使用后缀“-ize”,例如使用“organization”、“privatize”和“recognizable”,而不用“organisation”“privatise”和“recognisable”。这一拼写涉及约200个动词,之所以推荐该拼写是因为其词源基础,对于多数“-ize”结尾的动词,“-ize”更符合其希腊语词源“-izo”。[4]“-ize”后缀早在15世纪就已于英国使用了,[9]并且现在也是美式英语的拼法,将“-ize”视为美国英语的专利是不正确的。[9]《牛津英语词典》将使用“-ise”拼写的单词作为“一种-IZE的常见拼写……”(a frequent spelling of -IZE…)单独列出:

该习惯可能源于法语。该后缀在现代法语中变成了-iser,例如来自希腊语的词语baptiser, évangéliser, organiser,以及以拉丁式构词的civiliser, cicatriser, humaniser

This practice probably began first in French; in modern French the suffix has become -iser, alike in words from Greek, as baptiser, évangéliser, organiser, and those formed after them from Latin, as civiliser, cicatriser, humaniser.

此后,有人开始模仿法语,在英语中对所有此类单词使用-ise,也有人倾向于在法语或英语中构词取自拉丁元素的词汇中使用-ise,而在构词取自希腊元素的词语中保留-ize。

Hence, some have used the spelling -ise in English, as in French, for all these words, and some prefer -ise in words formed in French or English from Latin elements, retaining -ize for those formed from Greek elements.

但是,该后缀本身,无论添加了何种元素,都是取自希腊语的-ιζειν、拉丁语的-izāre;并且,由于其发音也是带z的,因此没有理由在英语中刻意跟随法语的拼写,而不使用符合词源和发音的拼写。本词典中该结尾一律写作-ize。(希腊语中-ιζ-的i发音短促,在拉丁语中原本亦然,但是双辅音z(= dz, ts)令该音节变长;当z为简单辅音时,/-idz/变为īz,由此英语为/-aɪz/。)

However, the suffix itself, whatever the element to which it is added, is in its origin the Greek -ιζειν, Latin -izāre; and, as the pronunciation is also with z, there is no reason why in English the special French spelling should be followed, in opposition to that which is at once etymological and phonetic. In this Dictionary the termination is uniformly written -ize. (In the Greek -ιζ-, the i was short, so originally in Latin, but the double consonant z (= dz, ts) made the syllable long; when the z became a simple consonant, /-idz/ became īz, whence English /-aɪz/.)

使用“-ize”代替“-ise”并不影响那些不是来自希腊语“-izo”的单词。其中一例就是以“-yse”(实际上是“-lyse”)结尾的单词,例如“analyse”、“paralyse”和“catalyse”,取自希腊语动词“λύω (lyo)”,其完成式(不定过去式)的词干为“-lys-”, 因此此处“-yse”更符合词源。其他的还包括“arise”、“chastise”、“disguise”、“prise”(in the sense of open)和“televise”。[10]

语言标签对比[编辑]

下表列出了4种常用英文拼写习惯的对比。en-GB表示一般的英式英语,并未规定应当使用“-ize”还是“-ise”,而en-GB-oxendict语言标签则规定要使用“-ize”和“-ization”。

英式
en-GB
牛津式
en-GB-oxendict
加拿大式[11]
en-CA
美式
en-US
analyse analyse analyze (also analyse)[12] analyze
behaviour behaviour behaviour (also behavior)[13] behavior
catalogue catalogue catalogue (also catalog) catalogue,
catalog
centre centre centre (also center) center
defence defence defence (also defense) defense
globalisation globalization   globalization globalisation globalization  
programme
program (computer code)
programme
program (computer code)
program (programme) program
realise realize realize (also realise) realize
traveller traveller traveller (also traveler) traveler

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 50 things you might not know about Nature Chemistry. [5 May 2016]. [W]e use Oxford English spelling. So, for all of you wondering why we put 'z's in lots of words that you don’t think we should, hopefully that answers your question. 
  2. ^ "ize", Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage. Merriam-Webster, 1994, p. 568.
  3. ^ OUP house style: -ize, -yse
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Ritter, R. M. New Hart's Rules. Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 43.

    That it affects around 200 verbs, see Upward, Christopher and Davidson, George. "The suffix -IZE/-ISE", The History of English Spelling. John Wiley & Sons, 2011, p. 220.

  5. ^ McArthur, Tom (ed.). "The -ize and -ise group", Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 124.
  6. ^ United Nations Editorial Manual. New York: United Nations Publications. 1983. 
  7. ^ Three further examples:
    1.  Style Manual 2nd Revised. UNESCO. 2004. 
    2.  Hindle, W. H. Theron, Johan; Malania, Leo, 编. A Guide to Writing for the United Nations 2nd. UN Department of Conference Services. 1984. 
    3.  Words ending in -ize, -ise and -yse. WHO Style Guide. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2004: 77–78. Where there is a choice between using the suffix -ize or -ise (e.g. organize or organise), -ize, derived from the Greek "-izo", is preferred, consistent with the first spelling of such words given in The concise Oxford dictionary [sic] .
    All use British -our spellings with Oxford -ize/-ization, except in proper names that have Organisation.
  8. ^ IANA language subtag registry, IANA, with "en-GB-oed" added 2003-07-09 marked as grandfathered, and deprecated effective 2015-04-17, with "en-GB-oxendict" preferred (accessed 2015-08-08).
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 -ize or -ise?. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. [9 August 2013]. 

    Are spellings like 'privatize' and 'organize' Americanisms?. AskOxford. Oxford University Press. [2008-07-14]. 

  10. ^ Richard Dixon, "Questions answered", The Times, 13 January 2004.
  11. ^ According to the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2004.
  12. ^ The spelling analyse is listed first, ahead of analyze, by The Winston Canadian Dictionary, Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Toronto, 1960, 1974.
  13. ^ The termination -or was formerly endorsed by the Gage Canadian Dictionary.