原子論

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原子論(英語:Atomism,來自古希臘語atomos,含義為“不可分割”)是在一些古代傳統中發展出的一種自然哲學。原子論者將自然世界理論化為由兩基本部分所構成:不可分割的原子和空無的虛空(void)。

依據亞里士多德引述,原子是不可構造的和永恆不變的,並且形狀和大小有無窮的變化。它們在空無(empty)中移動,相互碰離,有時變成與一個或多個其他原子相鉤結而形成聚簇(cluster)。不同形狀、排列和位置的聚簇引起世界上各種宏觀物質(substance)。[1][2]

對原子概念的記述可以上溯到古印度古希臘。有人將印度耆那教[3][4]的原子論認定為開創者大雄在公元前6世紀提出,並將與其同時代的彼浮陀伽旃延順世派先驅阿夷陀翅舍欽婆羅元素思想也稱為原子論[5]正理派勝論派後來發展出了原子如何組合成更複雜物體的理論。[6]在西方,對原子的記述出現在公元前5世紀留基伯德謨克利特的著作中[7]。對於印度文化影響希臘還是反之,亦或二者獨立演化是存在爭議的。[8]

參見[编辑]

外部鏈接[编辑]

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维基词典上的词义解释:

註解[编辑]

  1. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics I, 4, 985b 10–15.
  2. ^ Berryman, Sylvia, "Ancient Atomism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/atomism-ancient/
  3. ^ Gangopadhyaya, Mrinalkanti. Indian Atomism: History and Sources. Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press. 1981年. ISBN 0-391-02177-X. OCLC 10916778. 
  4. ^ Iannone, A. Pablo. Dictionary of World Philosophy. Routledge. 2001年: 83,356. ISBN 0415179955. OCLC 44541769. 
  5. ^ Thomas McEvilley, The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies ISBN 1-58115-203-5, Allwarth Press, 2002, p. 317-321.
  6. ^ Richard King, Indian philosophy: an introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought, , Edinburgh University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-7486-0954-7, pp. 105-107.
  7. ^ The atomists, Leucippus and Democritus: fragments, a text and translation with a commentary by C.C.W. Taylor, University of Toronto Press Incorporated 1999, ISBN 0-8020-4390-9, pp. 157-158.
  8. ^ Teresi, Dick. Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science. Simon & Schuster. 2003年: 213–214. ISBN 074324379X. 

參考書目[编辑]

  • Clericuzio, Antonio. Elements, Principles, and Corpuscles; a study of atomism and chemistry in the seventeenth century. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.
  • Cornford, Francis MacDonald. Plato's Cosmology: The Timaeus of Plato. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1957.
  • Dijksterhuis, E. The Mechanization of the World Picture. Trans. by C. Dikshoorn. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969. ISBN 0-691-02396-4
  • Firth, Raymond. Religion: A Humanist Interpretation. Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-12897-8.
  • Gangopadhyaya, Mrinalkanti. Indian Atomism: history and sources. Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1981. ISBN 0-391-02177-X
  • Gardet, L. "djuz'" in Encyclopaedia of Islam CD-ROM Edition, v. 1.1. Leiden: Brill, 2001.
  • Gregory, Joshua C. A Short History of Atomism. London: A. and C. Black, Ltd, 1981.
  • Kargon, Robert Hugh. Atomism in England from Hariot to Newton. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.
  • Lloyd, G. E. R. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968. ISBN 0-521-09456-9
  • Lloyd, G. E. R. Greek Science After Aristotle. New York: W. W. Norton, 1973. ISBN 0-393-00780-4
  • Marmara, Michael E. "Causation in Islamic Thought." Dictionary of the History of Ideas. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973-74. online at the of Virginia Electronic Text Center.
  • Redondi, Pietro. Galileo Heretic. Translated by Raymond Rosenthal. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-691-02426-X
  • McEvilley, Thomas (2002). The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. New York: Allworth Communications Inc. ISBN 1-58115-203-5.