梣树

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梣树
Fraxinus ornus - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-062.jpg
科學分類
界: 植物界 Plantae
門: 被子植物门 Magnoliophyta
綱: 双子叶植物纲 Magnoliopsida
目: 唇形目 Lamiales
科: 木犀科 Oleaceae
屬: 梣属 Fraxinus
L.[1]
物种

参见本文。


梣树学名Fraxinus)是木犀科梣属落叶乔木的通称,约有60个物种。产于温带和亚热带地区,在中国有近30种,北方、南方和中部都有种植。

其学名来自于拉丁语的“矛”,因为当时士兵们作战用的武器长矛的柄是用梣木制作的。在斯堪的纳维亚神话中,世界由一棵梣树支撑着。在希腊神话中,宙斯创造人类之初,人是从梣树里诞生的。

梣树叶子对生,羽状带齿,花有两性,花序锥形,花冠常呈四裂,雄蕊两个,柱头二裂,果实翅形,子叶扁平。

梣树的根和叶子具有利尿、消炎等药理功能。


部分物种[编辑]

开花的梣树
梣树的果实
北美洲东部
  • Fraxinus americana L. – White Ash
  • Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. – Carolina Ash
  • Fraxinus nigra Marshall – Black Ash
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall 美国红梣
  • Fraxinus profunda (Bush) Bush – Pumpkin Ash
  • Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. – Blue Ash
  • Fraxinus tremillium – Indigo Ash
北美洲西部和西南部
  • Fraxinus anomala Torr. ex S.Watson – Singleleaf Ash
  • Fraxinus berlandieriana DC. – Mexican Ash
  • Fraxinus cuspidata Torr. – Fragrant Ash
  • Fraxinus dipetala Hook. & Arn. – California Ash or Two-petal Ash
  • Fraxinus dubia
  • Fraxinus gooddingii – Goodding's Ash
  • Fraxinus greggii A.Gray – Gregg's Ash
  • Fraxinus latifolia Benth. – Oregon Ash
  • Fraxinus lowellii – Lowell Ash
  • Fraxinus papillosa Lingelsh. – Chihuahua Ash
  • Fraxinus purpusii
  • Fraxinus rufescens
  • Fraxinus texensis

(A.Gray) Sarg. – Texas Ash

  • Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh. – Shamel Ash or Tropical Ash
  • Fraxinus velutina Torr.绒毛白蜡
古北界西部(欧洲北非西南亚)
  • Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl – Narrow-leafed Ash or Caucasian Ash
    • Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa – Claret Ash or Raywood Ash
  • Fraxinus dimorpha
  • Fraxinus excelsior L.欧洲白蜡树
  • Fraxinus holotricha Koehne
  • Fraxinus ornus L. – Manna Ash or Flowering Ash
  • Fraxinus syriaca
  • Fraxinus pallisiae Wilmott – Pallis' Ash
古北界东部(中亚东亚
  • Fraxinus apertisquamifera
  • Fraxinus baroniana狭叶梣
  • Fraxinus bungeana DC.小叶梣
  • Fraxinus chinensis Roxb.白蜡树
  • Fraxinus chiisanensis
  • Fraxinus floribunda Wall.多花梣
  • Fraxinus griffithiiC.B.Clarke光腊树
  • Fraxinus hubeiensis
  • Fraxinus japonica – Japanese Ash
  • Fraxinus lanuginosa
  • Fraxinus longicuspis
  • Fraxinus malacophylla白枪杆
  • Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr.水曲柳
  • Fraxinus mariesii庐山梣
  • Fraxinus micrantha Lingelsh.
  • Fraxinus paxiana Lingelsh.
  • Fraxinus platypoda象蜡树
  • Fraxinus raibocarpa Regel
  • Fraxinus sieboldiana Blume – Japanese Flowering Ash
  • Fraxinus spaethiana Lingelsh. – Späth's Ash
  • Fraxinus trifoliata
  • Fraxinus xanthoxyloides (G.Don) Wall. ex DC.椒叶梣[2][3]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Fraxinus L.. GRIN. USDA. 2006-04-03 [2010-02-22]. 
  2. ^ Species Records of Fraxinus. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. [2010-02-22]. 
  3. ^ Fraxinus L.. ITIS Standard Reports. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [2010-02-22]. 

外部链接[编辑]

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维基物种中的分类信息: