西里尔·伯特

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西里尔·伯特爵士(Sir Cyril Lodowic Burt,1883年3月3日 – 1971年10月10日)是一位英国教育心理学[1],发展了心理测验中的因素分析方法。[2]在他去世后不久,他在遗传和智力研究中曾经伪造数据的证据被披露,使他的名誉大为受损。[2]

生平[编辑]

早年[编辑]

西里尔·伯特出生于1883年3月3日,是西里尔·塞西尔·巴罗·伯特医生(1857年出生)和妻子玛撒的长子[3]。关于他的出生地有几种不同的说法,包括英国沃里克郡的埃文河畔斯特拉特福[4]或者伦敦[5]。他的父亲虽然是学医出身,但起初依靠一爿药店养家,取得行医执照以后,得以担任伦敦威斯敏斯特医院的助理外科住院医生和助理妇产科医生。 [6]。西里尔·伯特开始接受教育,是在伦敦圣詹姆斯公园附近的一所Board school [7]

1890年,伯特全家暂时移居到泽西,然后在1893年又迁居沃里克郡的Snitterfield,伯特的父亲在那里开办了一个乡村诊所[8]。伯特在年幼时就显现出其早熟的天性,以至于他的医生父亲经常让他with him on his medical round [9]。老伯特最著名的病人之一是Darwin Galton, brother of Francis Galton. The visits the Burts made to the Galton estate not only allowed the young Burt to learn about the work of Francis Galton, but also allowed Burt to meet him on multiple occasions and to be strongly drawn to his ideas; especially his studies in statistics and individual differences, two defining characters of the London School of Psychology whose membership includes both Galton and Burt.

1892年-1895年,西里尔·伯特就读于沃里克郡的国王学校,后来赢得基督医院(当时位于伦敦)的奖学金,培养起对心理学的兴趣[10]

1902年,西里尔·伯特进入牛津大学耶稣学院,专攻哲学和心理学,曾师从著名心理学家威廉·麦独孤。麦独孤知道伯特对高尔顿的工作感兴趣,就建议他focus his senior project on psychometrics, thus giving Burt his initial inquiry into the development and structure of mental tests; an interest that would last the rest of his life. Burt was one of a group of students who worked with McDougall, which included William Brown, John Carl Frugel, May Smith, who all went on to have distinguished careers in psychology[11]. Burt graduated with second-class honours in 1906 which he followed by a teaching diploma.

1907年,麦独孤邀请伯特帮忙参与弗兰西斯·高尔顿提议的英国全国性的身体和心理特征调查,从事心理测验的标准化工作。这项工作使伯特接触到优生学查尔斯·斯皮尔曼卡尔·皮尔森

1908年夏天,伯特访问德国维尔茨堡大学,在那里首次遇到心理学家奥斯瓦尔德·屈尔佩 [12]

教育心理学工作[编辑]

1908年,伯特担任利物浦大学的心理学讲师和生理学助理讲师,在那里他在著名生理学家查尔斯·谢林顿爵士手下工作[13]。1909年,伯特利用查尔斯·斯皮尔曼的一般智力模型分析数据on the performance of schoolchildren in a battery of tests. This first research project was to define Burt's life's work in quantitative intelligence testing, eugenics, and the inheritance of intelligence. One of the conclusions in his 1909 paper was that upper-class children in private preparatory schools did better in the tests than those in the ordinary elementary schools, and that the difference was innate.

1913年,伯特担任伦敦郡议会的兼职学校心理学with the responsibility of picking out the ‘feeble-minded’ children, in accordance with the Mental Deficiency Act of 1913[14]. He notably established that girls were equal to boys in general intelligence. The post also allowed him to work in Spearman's laboratory, and received research assistants from the National Institute of Industrial Psychology. Burt was much involved in the initiation of child guidance in Great Britain and his 1925 publication The Young Delinquent led to opening of the London Child Guidance Clinic in Islington in 1927 [15]. In 1924 Burt was also appointed part-time professor of educational psychology at the London Day Training College (LDTC), and carried out much of his child guidance work on the premises[16].

===Later Career===

In 1931 he resigned his position at the LCC and the LDTC after he was appointed Professor and Chair of Psychology at University College, London, taking over Charles Spearman's position, thus ending his almost 20-year career as a school psychological practitioner. While at London, Burt influenced many students, including Raymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck, and toward the end of his life, Arthur Jensen and Chris Brand. Burt was a consultant with the committees that developed the Eleven Plus examinations. This issue, and the allegations of fraudulent scholarship against him, are discussed in various books and articles listed below, including Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed and The Mismeasure of Man. -->

In 1942, Burt was elected President of the British Psychological Society and in 1946 became the first British psychologist to become knighted.

Burt was knighted in 1946 for his contributions to psychological testing and for making educational opportunities more widely available, according to an account by J. Philippe Rushton.[17] Burt was a member of the London School of Differential Psychology, and of the British Eugenics Society. Because he had suggested on radio in 1946 the formation of an organization for people with high IQ scores, he was made honorary president of Mensa in 1960.

At age 68, Burt retired but continued writing articles and books. He died of cancer at age 88 in London on October 10, 1971. -->

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ "Sir Cyril Burt." 大英百科全书. 2007.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 "Sir Cyril Burt." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 19 Apr. 2007. "Burt, Cyril Lodowic." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2005.
  3. ^ Hearnshaw, Leslie Spencer. Cyril Burt, psychologist. London: Hodder and Stoughton. 1979. 
  4. ^ "Sir Cyril Burt."大英百科全书. 2007
  5. ^ Hearnshaw, (1979), p2. Burt, Sir Cyril Lodowic (1883–1971). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 牛津大学出版社. 2006.  Joynson, Robert Billington. The Burt affair. London: Routledge. 1989. 
  6. ^ Hearnshaw, (1979), p2
  7. ^ Hearnshaw, (1979), p2
  8. ^ Hearnshaw, (1979), p2
  9. ^ Hearnshaw, (1979), p7
  10. ^ Burt, Sir Cyril Lodowic (1883–1971). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 牛津大学出版社. 2006. 
  11. ^ Hearnshaw, (1979), p11
  12. ^ Hearnshaw, (1979), p13
  13. ^ Burt, Sir Cyril Lodowic (1883–1971). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 牛津大学出版社. 2006. 
  14. ^ Burt, Sir Cyril Lodowic (1883–1971). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. 2006. 
  15. ^ Hearnshaw (1979) p44
  16. ^ Aldrich, Richard. The Institute of Education 1902-2002 : a centenary history. London: Institute of Education. 2002. 
  17. ^ "Victim of scientific hoax – Cyril Burt and the genetic IQ controversy" J. Philippe Rushton, Society, March-April 1994, v.31(3), p. 40(5)

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