世界轮椅运动会

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世界轮椅运动会,全称是世界轮椅及截肢者运动会,也叫做斯托克·曼德维尔(Stoke Mandeville)轮椅运动会,是一个多项目的残疾人运动会。

第一届运动会是由路德維希·古特曼在1948年举办。

比賽[编辑]

  • 1948: Stoke Mandeville Games for the Paralyzed [1] July 28, 1948, archery competition, 16 competitors[2] (14 men, 2 women[3])
  • 1949–1951: Stoke Mandeville Games
  • 1952:Stoke Mandeville, England – First International Stoke Mandeville Games[4] A Dutch team participated, making it an international event[2]
  • 1953–1959: International Stoke Mandeville Games (2nd–8th)
  • 1960: 9th Annual International Stoke Mandeville Games, Rome, Italy – later known as the 1st Paralympic Games[5]
  • 1961–1963: International Stoke Mandeville Games (10th–12th)
  • 1964: 13th International Stoke Mandeville Games for the Paralysed, Tokyo, Japan – later known as the 2nd Paralympic Games[6]
  • 1965–1967: International Stoke Mandeville Games (14th–16th)
  • 1968: 17th International Stoke Mandeville Games, Tel Aviv, Israel [7] – later known as the 3rd Paralympic Games
  • 1969–1972: International Stoke Mandeville Games (18th–20th)
  • 1972: 21st International Stoke Mandeville Games,Heidelberg, Germany – later known as the 4th Paralympic Games[7][8]
  • 1973–1975: International Stoke Mandeville Games
  • 1976: None (5th Paralympic Year)
  • 1977–1979: International Stoke Mandeville Games
  • 1980: None (6th Paralympic Year)
  • 1981–1983: International Stoke Mandeville Games
  • 1984: None (7th Paralympic Year)
  • 1985–1987: International Stoke Mandeville Games
  • 1988: None (8th Paralympic Year)
  • 1989–1991: International Stoke Mandeville Games
  • 1992: None (9th Paralympic Year)
  • 1993–1995: International Stoke Mandeville Games
  • 1996: None (10th Paralympic Year)
  • 1997–2000 – World Wheelchair Games
  • 2000: None (11th Paralympic Year)
  • 2001–2003: World Wheelchair Games[9]
  • 2004: None (12th Paralympic Year)
  • 2005: World Wheelchair and Amputee Games[10]Rio de Janeiro,  巴西. Over 700 athletes from 44 nations. Five events: track and field, table tennis, archery, shooting, and billiards.[11]
  • 2006 World Wheelchair and Amputee Games, 班加羅爾,  印度
  • 2007: World Wheelchair and Amputee Games 中華台北 臺北市[12]
  • 2008: None (13th Paralympic Year)
  • 2009: IWAS World Games – 班加羅爾,  印度,[13][14][15]
  • 2011: IWAS World Games – 夏尔迦,  阿联酋 – 1–10 December 2011[16]
  • 2012: None (14th Paralympic Year)
  • 2013: IWAS World Games, 斯塔茨卡納爾,  荷蘭
  • 2015: IWAS World Games, 索契,  俄羅斯

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Paralympics: Where Heroes Come, by Dr. Robert Steadward and Cynthia Peterson. Edmonton, Alberta: One Shot Holdings Ltd., 1997, melazerte.com, May 30, 2010
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Remembering Paralympics past, BBC, July 15, 2008
  3. ^ The Paralympics: It all started with Veterans. Veteran Affairs Canada
  4. ^ Chronology of Events in the Development of Wheelchair Basketball, International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF)
  5. ^ Rome 1960, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  6. ^ The Thirteenth International Stoke Mandeville Games for The Paralysed, dinf.ne.jp, March 17, 1999
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Summer Games Governance 1960 to 1992, International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation (IWAS)
  8. ^ 21st Wheelchair Olympics, by Charles J. Bierbauer, The Pittsburgh Press, August 1, 1972, Google News Archive Search
  9. ^ 2003 World Wheelchair Games / Jeux Mondiaux 2003, Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association
  10. ^ 2005 World Wheelchair and Amputee Games, cwsa.ca
  11. ^ 21. Sports – Accomplishments Abroad – The First IWAS World Wheelchair and Amputee Games, gio.gov.tw
  12. ^ Singapore wins 14 medals at World Wheelchair and Amputee Games 2007, sglead.wordpress.com, September 18, 2007
  13. ^ IWAS World Wheelchair & Amputee Games 2009, , International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation (IWAS)
  14. ^ The Official Website of IWAS World Games 2009
  15. ^ IWAS World Games 2009, International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation (IWAS), November 24, 2009
  16. ^ IWAS announced today that the bid to host the IWAS World Games, International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation (IWAS), February 8, 2011