內陸太攀蛇

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內陸太攀蛇
Fierce Snake-Oxyuranus microlepidotus.jpg
保护状况
未予评估
科學分類
界: 动物界 Animalia
門: 脊索动物门 Chordata
綱: 爬虫纲 Reptilia
目: 有鳞目 Squamata
科: 眼镜蛇科 Elapidae
屬: 太攀蛇属 Oxyuranus
種: 內陸太攀蛇 O. microlepidotus
二名法
Oxyuranus microlepidotus
(McCoy, 1879)
內陸太攀蛇分佈範圍(紅色)
內陸太攀蛇分佈範圍(紅色)

內陸太攀蛇學名Oxyuranns scutcuatus),又名內陸盾尖吻蛇西陸太攀蛇,屬眼镜蛇科太攀蛇属,是澳大利亞中東部半乾旱地區的特有蛇種。[1]居住在這些地區的土著澳大利亞人稱其為“Dandarabilla”。[2][3]內陸太攀蛇率先於1879年由弗雷德里克·麥科伊(Frederick McCoy)發現並描述,之後又於1882年由威廉·約翰·麥克萊(William John Macleay)發現並描述,但在接下來的90年中,內陸太攀蛇對科學界來說是一個神秘的物種。由於找不到更多的標本,對於該物種的認知直到1972年被重新發現之前基本停滯。[4]

Fierce Snake.jpg
FierceSnakeOlive.jpg

內陸太攀蛇是全球毒性最強的陸棲蛇類。基於小鼠的半數致死量值,它的毒液毒性是迄今為止所有毒蛇中最強的,甚至比海蛇還要強。[5][6][7]人體心臟細胞培養測試表明,內陸太攀蛇具有爬行動物中毒性最大的毒液。[8][9][10]與大多數蛇類不同,內陸太攀蛇的毒液特別適合殺死恆溫動物,所以也是專業的哺乳動物獵手。據估計,被內陸太攀蛇一次咬傷便具有足夠的殺傷力,可以殺死至少100名成年男子,[11][12]並且根據咬傷的性質,如果不進行治療,其有可能在30至45分鐘內殺死人類。[13]

內陸太攀蛇是一種速度極快且敏捷的蛇,能夠以極高的準確度立即攻擊任何物種,經常會在同一次攻擊幅度中發出多次攻擊,[14][15] 並且幾乎每次攻擊都能向被攻擊物種植入毒液。[16]

雖然內陸太攀蛇極具毒性且善於攻擊。但與更加激進的海岸太攀蛇相比,內陸太攀蛇通常非常害羞,喜於隱居,[17]性格平靜且更偏向擺脫威脅。[18] 然而如果被激怒、[19]處理不當[20]或在逃跑時被干擾,會進行自衛並攻擊。 [21] 此外由於內陸太攀蛇生活在偏遠的地方,很少與人接觸,[22]因此根據其性格與年致人死亡數方面,內陸太攀蛇並不被認為是世界上最致命的蛇。[23]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Cecilie Beatson (November 29, 2011). ANIMAL SPECIES:Inland Taipan Australian Museum. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
  2. ^ Queensland Snakes . History & Discovery. (archived) Queensland Museum. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
  3. ^ Pearn, John; Winkel, Kenneth D. Toxinology in Australia's colonial era: A chronology and perspective of human envenomation in 19th century Australia. Toxicon. December 2006, 48 (7): 726–737. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.07.027. 
  4. ^ Rediscovery. The Rediscovery of the Western Taipan. (archived) Queensland Museum. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ Inland Taipan Venom vs. Sea Snakes Venom (most notable Belcher's sea snake)
    • Oakley, Cecily (2011). Interview with Associate Professor Bryan Fry Biochemist and molecular biologist 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2013-10-22.. "...For my PhD, I worked on the inland taipan, which is the world’s most venomous snake..." . Australian Academy of Science. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
    • Fry, Brian site admin (April 10, 2005) Most Venomous 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2014-10-17., Question: " ...I was talking to another herpatolagist and he said the hook nosed sea snake was the most venomous of all" Fry Answers: "The hook nosed myth was due to a fundamental error in a book called 'Snakes in question'. In there, all the toxicity testing results were lumped in together, regardless of the mode of testing (e.g. subcutaneous vs. intramuscular vs intravenous vs intraperitoneal). As the mode can influence the relative number, venoms can only be compared within a mode. Otherwise, its apples and rocks." Venomdoc forums, Retrieved February 25, 2015
    • kingsnake.com September Guest Chatter (September 16, 2006).Q&A with Dr. Bryan Grieg Fry, Deputy Director, Australian Venom Research Unit, University of Melbourne 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2012-10-15.. "Q: In retrospect to the LD50 charts, what do you personally feel is the hottest snake, in regards to potency, defensiveness, means of injection, etc.? A: It is the inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus). Not, as is popularised, any of the sea snakes." connectedbypets.com. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
    • Garden of Eden Exotics (May 2, 2012) Dr. Bryan Grieg Fry – Interview "...The inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus') is far and away the most toxic, much more so than even sea snakes." nyexotics.blogspot.com Retrieved October 14, 2013
  8. ^ Fry, Bryan 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 (February 08, 2005) Most Venomous 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2014-10-17.,"Q;I was wondering what snakes venom is the most potent to humans A:Drop for drop it is the inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus), which has a venom more toxic than any other land snake or even the sea snakes." venomdoc.com Forums, Retrieved April 17, 2014
  9. ^ Seymour, Jamie, World's Worst Venom, (Min 44.33) "Among the reptiles tested, the most toxic venom belongs to inland taipan, killing over 60% of heart cells in the first 10 minutes" National Geographic Channel Retrieved April 17, 2014
  10. ^ Seymour, Jamie, Venom Death Match "They have the most toxic venom towards humans then any other snake in the world" (min 1:49) National Geographic Channel, Retrieved April 17, 2014
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ * Hoy, Tiffany, (July 25, 2012) Gallery: Australia's 10 most dangerous snakes 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆, Australian Geographic retrieved April 02.,2014
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ ABC News 24 (September 27, 2012) . Teen hospitalised after bite from deadly Taipan. (Quoting Toxicologist, Dr Geoff Isbister) . Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
  17. ^ * Cecilie Beatson (November 29, 2011). ANIMAL SPECIES:Inland Taipan "The venom of the Inland Taipan is extremely potent and is rated as the most toxic of all snake venoms in LD50 tests on mice". Australian Museum. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
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  20. ^
  21. ^ Carbone, Nick reporting on Steve Irwin (September 04, 2011). Remembering Steve Irwin: The 5 Most Memorable Crocodile Hunter Videos "Steve Irwin Plays with Inland Taipan (Fierce Snake)". Time (magazine). Retrieved October 15, 2013.
  22. ^ Aussie Animals.Inland Taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus) 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. Billabong Sanctuary. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
  23. ^