斯瓦迪士核心詞列表

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索

斯瓦迪士核心詞列表Swadesh list)是美國語言學家莫里斯·斯瓦迪士在1940年代到1950年代提出的一個列表。他從統計學的角度用分析不同的語言(以印歐語系語言為主),從而得出一個約莫有200字的核心詞列表。他認為,基本上所有語言的詞彙都應該包含這二百多個詞語;而另一方面,只要認識這二百多個詞語,亦可以利用該種語言作最基本的溝通。

詞彙列表(汉英对照)[编辑]

以下詳列斯瓦迪士所枚舉的207個核心詞:

現代標準漢語 英語
English
國際音標
1 I [aɪ]
2 you [juː]
3 he [hiː]
4 我們 we [wiː]
5 你們 you [juː]
6 他們 they [ðeɪ]
7 this [ðɪs]
8 that [ðæt]
9 這裡 here [hiə]
10 那裡 there [ðɛə]
11 who [huː]
12 什麼 what [wɒt]
13 where [wɛə]
14 何時 when [wen]
15 如何 how [haʊ]
16 not [nɒt]
17 所有 all [ɔːl]
18 many [ˈmeni]
19 一些 some [sʌm]
20 few [fjuː]
21 其他 other [ˈʌðə]
22 one [wʌn]
23 two [tuː]
24 three [θɹiː]
25 four [fɔː]
26 five [ˈfaɪv]
27 big [bɪɡ]
28 long [lɔŋ]
29 wide [waɪd]
30 thick [θɪk]
31 heavy [ˈhevi]
32 small [smɔːl]
33 short [ʃɔːt]
34 narrow [ˈnæɹəʊ]
35 thin [θɪn]
36 woman [ˈwʊmən]
37 man [mæn]
38 man, person [mæn], [ˈpɜːsn]
39 child [ʧaɪld]
40 wife [waɪf]
41 husband [ˈhʌzbənd]
42 mother [ˈmʌðə]
43 father [ˈfɑːðə]
44 動物 animal [ˈænɪməl]
45 fish [fɪʃ]
46 bird [bɜːd]
47 dog [dɒɡ]
48 louse [laʊs]
49 snake [sneɪk]
50 worm [wɜːm]
51 tree [tɹiː]
52 forest [ˈfɒɹɪst]
53 stick [stɪk]
54 fruit [fɹuːt]
55 seed [siːd]
56 leaf [liːf]
57 root [ɹuːt]
58 樹皮 bark [bɑːk]
59 flower [ˈflaʊə]
60 grass [ɡɹaːs]
61 rope [ɹəʊp]
62 skin [skɪn]
63 meat [miːt]
64 blood [blʌd]
65 bone [bəʊn]
66 fat [fæt]
67 egg [eɡ]
68 horn [hɔːn]
69 tail [teɪl]
70 feather [ˈfɛðə]
71 hair [hɛə]
72 head [hed]
73 ear [ɪə]
74 eye [aɪ]
75 nose [nəʊz]
76 mouth [maʊθ]
77 tooth [tuːθ]
78 tongue [tʌŋ]
79 指甲 fingernail [ˈfɪŋɡəneɪl]
80 foot [fʊt]
81 leg [leɡ]
82 knee [niː]
83 hand [hænd]
84 wing [wɪŋ]
85 belly [ˈbelɪ]
86 guts [gʌts]
87 neck [nek]
88 back [bæk]
89 breast [bɹest]
90 heart [hɑːt]
91 liver [ˈlɪvə]
92 to drink [dɹɪŋk]
93 to eat [iːt]
94 to bite [baɪt]
95 to suck [sʌk]
96 to spit [spɪt]
97 to vomit [ˈvɒmɪt]
98 to blow [bləʊ]
99 呼吸 to breathe [bɹiːð]
100 to laugh [laːf]
101 to see [siː]
102 to hear [hiə]
103 to know [nəʊ]
104 to think [θɪŋk]
105 to smell [smel]
106 to fear [fɪə]
107 to sleep [sliːp]
108 to live [lɪv]
109 to die [daɪ]
110 to kill [kɪl]
111 to fight [faɪt]
112 to hunt [hʌnt]
113 to hit [hɪt]
114 to cut [kʌt]
115 to split [splɪt]
116 to stab [stæb]
117 to scratch [skɹæʧ]
118 to dig [dɪɡ]
119 to swim [swɪm]
120 to fly [flaɪ]
121 to walk [wɔːk]
122 to come [kʌm]
123 to lie down (action), to lie (état) [laɪ] [daʊn], [laɪ]
124 to sit down (action), to sit (état) [sɪt] [daʊn], [sɪt]
125 to stand up (action), to stand (état) [stænd] [ʌp], [stænd]
126 to turn [tɜːn]
127 to fall [fɔːl]
128 to give [ɡɪv]
129 to hold [həʊld]
130 to squeeze [skwiːz]
131 to rub [ɹʌb]
132 to wash [wɒʃ]
133 to wipe [waɪp]
134 to pull [pʊl]
135 to push [pʊʃ]
136 to throw [θɹəʊ]
137 to tie [taɪ]
138 to sew [səʊ]
139 to count [kaʊnt]
140 to say [seɪ]
141 to sing [sɪŋ]
142 to play [pleɪ]
143 to float [fləʊt]
144 to flow [fləʊ]
145 to freeze [fɹiːz]
146 to swell [swel]
147 sun [sʌn]
148 moon [muːn]
149 star [stɑː]
150 water [ˈwɔːtə]
151 rain [ɹeɪn]
152 river [ˈɹɪvə]
153 lake [leɪk]
154 sea [siː]
155 salt [sɔːlt]
156 stone [stəʊn]
157 sand [sænd]
158 dust [dʌst]
159 earth [ɜːθ]
160 cloud [klaʊd]
161 fog [fɒɡ]
162 sky [skaɪ]
163 wind [wɪnd]
164 snow [snəʊ]
165 ice [aɪs]
166 smoke [sməʊk]
167 fire [faɪə]
168 ashes [ˈæʃɪz]
169 to burn [bɜːn]
170 road [ɹəʊd]
171 mountain [ˈmaʊntɪn]
172 red [ɹed]
173 green [ɡɹiːn]
174 yellow [ˈjeləʊ]
175 white [waɪt]
176 black [blæk]
177 night [naɪt]
178 day [deɪ]
179 year [jiə]
180 warm [wɔːm]
181 cold [kəʊld]
182 滿 full [fʊl]
183 new [njuː]
184 old [əʊld]
185 good [ɡʊd]
186 bad [bæd]
187 rotten [ˈɹɒtn]
188 dirty [ˈdɜːtɪ]
189 straight [stɹeɪt]
190 round [ɹaʊnd]
191 sharp [ʃɑːp]
192 dull, blunt [dʌl], [blʌnt]
193 smooth [smuːð]
194 wet [wet]
195 dry [dɹaɪ]
196 correct [kəˈɹekt]
197 near [nɪə]
198 far [fɑː]
199 right [ɹaɪt]
200 left [left]
201 at [æt]
202 in [ɪn]
203 with [wɪð]
204 and [ænd]
205 if [ɪf]
206 because [bɪˈkɒz]
207 name [neɪm]

參看[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Campbell, Lyle. (1998). Historical linguistics; An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Embleton, Sheila (1995). Review of ‘An Indo-European classification: A lexicostatistical experiment’ by I. Dyen; J.B. Kruskal & P.Black. TAPS Monograph 82-5, Philadelphia. in Diachronica 12-2/1992:263-68.
  • Gray, Russell D.; & Atkinson, Quentin D. Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin, Nature, 426.
  • Gudschinsky, Sarah. (1956). The ABC's of lexicostatistics (glottochronology). Word, 12, 175-210.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1956). Lexicostatistics: A critique. Language, 32, 49-60.
  • Swadesh, Morris. (1950). Salish internal relationships. International Journal of American Linguistics, 16, 157-167.
  • Swadesh, Morris. (1952). Lexicostatistic dating of prehistoric ethnic contacts. Proceedings American Philosophical Society, 96, 452-463.
  • Swadesh, Morris. (1955). Towards greater accuracy in lexicostatistic dating. International Journal of American Linguistics, 21, 121-137.
  • Swadesh, Morris (1972). What is glottochronology? In M. Swadesh, The origin and diversification of languages (pp. 271–284). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

外部連結[编辑]

Template:斯瓦迪士核心詞列表