新真诚

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新真诚(与后-后现代主义密切相关并时常被描述为它的同义词)是在音乐美学、文学小说、影评诗歌文学评论哲学上兴起的一种趋势。它通常描述了扩大和摆脱后现代主义讽刺犬儒主义概念的创作,有部分回归现代主义的表现。尽管它是由美国作家戴维·福斯特·华莱士所推广的,其使用最早可以追溯到1980年代中期。[1][2]

在音乐上[编辑]

1985至1990年间,“新真诚”被用作以奧斯汀为中心的一群零散另类摇滚乐队的总称,它们被视作为对当时尚不知名的音乐运动(例如朋克摇滚新浪潮)的讽刺性的展望的回应。在使用中将“新真诚”一词与这些乐队联系起来始于奥斯丁朋克摇滚作家Jesse Sublett对他的朋友,当地音乐作家Margaret Moser的一条不客气的评论。根据作者Barry Shank的说法,Sublett说:“所有这些新真诚乐队都是废物。”[3] Sublett(在他自己的网站上)称他的话被错误引用了,他实际上告诉Moser的是,“这对我来说都是新的诚意...这不是我的菜。”[4] 无论如何,Moser开始使用这些句子,其最终成为了这些乐队的流行语。[5][6]

在美国国内,最成功的“新真诚”乐队是在1985到1991年间发行了四个受到好评的专辑的The Reivers(原名Zeitgeist)乐队。由Alejandro EscovedoJon Dee Graham领导的True Believers乐队也受到了广泛的批评性的赞美和来自奥斯汀当地的好评,但是乐队存在难以在录制时捕获现场声音等问题。[7]其它重要的“新真诚”乐队包括有Doctors Mob乐队、[8][9]Wild Seeds乐队[10]Glass Eye乐队。[11]另一个标志性的“新真诚”人物是古怪但是备受赞誉的歌曲作者Daniel Johnston[3]

尽管受到了广泛的关注(包括《滚石》杂志在全美国的覆盖以及1985年的MTV节目The Cutting Edge),但没有一个“新真诚”乐队取得了较大的商业成功,而“光景”在几年内就结束了。[12][13]

其它音乐作家也使用“新真诚”来描述后来的表演者,例如拱廊之火[14]Conor Oberst[15]貓女魔力Devendra BanhartJoanna Newsom[16]中性牛奶飯店[17]Sufjan Stevens[18]Idlewild[19],此外还有奥斯汀的Okkervil River[20]Leatherbag[21]Michael Waller[22]

在影评上[编辑]

在文学小说和评论上[编辑]

在哲学上[编辑]

作为一个文化运动[编辑]

“新真诚主义”自2002年开始受到PRIThe Sound of Young America,其自称为“关于酷炫事物的公共广播节目”,的主持人Jesse Thorn的赞扬。Thorn将新真诚视为一场由格言“最多乐趣(Maximum Fun)”和“更加酷炫(Be More Awesome)”组成的文化运动。它颂扬特大规模的欢乐庆祝,并反对讽刺,尤其是对文化作品的讽刺。Thorn在他的节目和采访中提出了这一观点,[23][24][25][26][27]一份俄罗斯后苏联审美理论的学术研究中以“新真诚”一词的美国普及者的身份提及了Thorn。[28]Thorn提出的概念的典型解释是这份2006年的“新真诚宣言”:

什么是新真诚主义?你可以认为它像战神金刚一样拥有讽刺和诚意,以形成一种令人惊叹的力量;或者认为它是缺乏讽刺和诚意的,那里更少便(显然)是更多。如果这让你的大脑感到紧张的话,想想Evel Knievel。容我坦率地说,没有办法可以从字面上来欣赏Evel Knievel。Evel是那种连小说都无法描绘的人,因为现实实在是太夸张了。这是一个穿着红白蓝三色皮衣连身裤,开着某种火箭车,通过从东西上面跳过去来收获名利的人。这是一个就像小蜘蛛出现在在漫画书封面上一样自然的真人。简而言之,Evel Knievel令大家惊叹。但同样的道理,他也不是讽刺的。实际情况是,Evel他是,一言以蔽之,酷炫的……我们的问候方式:两个竖起的大拇指。我们的信条:“更加酷炫”。我们的生活方式:“最多乐趣”。将警惕置之脑后吧,朋友,用新真诚主义的方式活着。[29]

区域变体[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ David Foster Wallace, "E Unibus Pluram: Television and U.S. Fiction".
  2. ^ Williams, Iain. (New) Sincerity in David Foster Wallace's "Octet". Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction. 2015-05-27, 56 (3): 299–314. ISSN 0011-1619. doi:10.1080/00111619.2014.899199. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Barry Shank, Dissonant Identities: The Rock'N'Roll Scene in Austin, Texas (Wesleyan University Press, 1994) (ISBN 9780819562760), p. 148–149 & p.271 n.84. (excerpt available at Google Books).
  4. ^ "Jesse's Music Bio"[失效連結] at Jesse Sublett's Little Black Book (retrieved September 18, 2009).
  5. ^ Peter Blackstock, "'is it worth the admission....'" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2008-12-04., No Depression blog post dated January 15, 2008.
  6. ^ Regarding Jesse Sublett and his band, The Skunks, see Ken Lieck, "Young, Loud, and Cheap: The Skunks, the Band That Broke Austin Out of the Seventies", Austin Chronicle, December 8, 2000, and Jesse Sublett, Never the Same Again: A Rock 'N' Roll Gothic (Ten Speed Press, 2004), ISBN 978-1-58008-598-4 (excerpts available at Google Books).
  7. ^ True Believers at Allmusic.
  8. ^ Kent H. Benjamin, "Why Should Anyone Care Now?", Austin Chronicle Weekly Wire August 30, 1999.
  9. ^ Doctors Mob at Allmusic.
  10. ^ Wild Seeds at Allmusic.
  11. ^ Glass Eye at Allmusic.
  12. ^ Kristin Gorski, Almost Famous: The Austin Texas Soundtrack Circa 1985, Annabelle Magazine, No. 12 (2006).
  13. ^ Michael Corcoran, "The New Sincerity: Austin in the Eighties", reprinted in Michael Corcoran, All Over the Map: True Heroes of Texas Music (University of Texas Press, 2005), ISBN 978-0-292-70976-8, pp. 150–156.
  14. ^ Huffington Post, "ultra-sincere indie artists from Arcade Fire" Huffington Post, May 16, 2013.
  15. ^ The New York Times,"Mr. Sincerity tries a new trick" The New York Times, January 16, 2005.
  16. ^ Jason Morris, “The Time Between Time: Messianism & the Promise of a “New Sincerity”, Jacket 35 (2008)
  17. ^ Huffington Post, "many significant indie artists" Huffington Post, May 16, 2013.
  18. ^ Huffington Post, " many significant indie artists" Huffington Post, May 16, 2013.
  19. ^ Robert Christgau, "Vibrators", The Village Voice, March 27, 2001.
  20. ^ Kate X. Messer, "Okkervil River: The New Sincerity", Austin Chronicle, March 3, 2000.
  21. ^ Austin Powell, "Texas Platters: deEP end", Austin Chronicle, March 13, 2009.
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ Ben Kharakh, "Jesse Thorn, America's Radio Sweetheart" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2008-09-29. in Gothamist, posted November 2, 2006.
  24. ^ Dennis McCafferty, "Top podcast picks: Favorites from experts in their category"[失效連結], USA Weekend, January 14, 2007. (Thorn's program was the in-print "podcast pick" of comedian Patton Oswalt.)
  25. ^ "Interview: Jesse Thorn, Part 1", The Merlin Show, posted June 4, 2007.
  26. ^ Dan Brodnitz, "An Interview with The Sound of Young America's Jesse Thorn", O'Reilly Digital Media, posted September 15, 2008.
  27. ^ But see Bill Forman, "Müz: The New Ambiguity", Metro Santa Cruz, March 8–15, 2006 (opining that New Sincerity is "just another ironic hoax").
  28. ^ Alexei Yurchak, "Post-Post-Communist Sincerity: Pioneers, Cosmonauts, and Other Soviet Heroes Born Today", in Thomas Lahusen and Peter H. Solomon, What Is Soviet Now?: Identities, Legacies, Memories (LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, 2008), ISBN 978-3-8258-0640-8, p.258 n.3, excerpt available at Google Books. ("In the United States, the term 'new sincerity' has been popularized since 9/11 by some youth media (for example, by Jesse Thorn, the host of a popular music program Sound of Young America, on New York's National Public Radio station WNYC").)
  29. ^ Jesse Thorn, "A Manifesto for The New Sincerity", February 17, 2006.