植硅体

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芦苇中扇型植硅体的显微形象,可见风化的凹坑

植硅体英语:phytolith),是存在于多种高等植物细胞或细胞间隙中的显微结构小体,其主要成分为二氧化硅,中文曾译植硅石、植物硅酸体等,现在学界统一称之为植硅体。植硅体的大小和形状与植物种类与部位有关,其形态具有鉴定意义,特别是禾本科植物,最好的情况可以鉴定到种。植物中还常见一些草酸钙质的颗粒,被称为植钙体。

功能[编辑]

植硅体有多种功能。一些植硅体可能和植物的结构和支撑功能有关,对于许多农作物来说,可以防止倒伏;在某些植物中,植硅体可能也具有一定的防御病虫害及食草动物的作用。

应用[编辑]

考古学[编辑]

植硅体容易保存在考古地层与遗物中,因此常用来鉴定史前栽培植物。

古生物学[编辑]

植硅体在化石遗存中很丰富,在晚泥盆纪地层中就有发现,可用来追溯古生物环境与植被变迁。[1]

地球化学[编辑]

最近的研究还发现,元素也可以在许多植硅体中积聚。[2]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Carter, J.A. Late Devonian, Permian and Triassic phytoliths from Antarctica. Micropaleontology. 1999, 45 (1): 56–61 [2008-04-22]. doi:10.2307/1486202. 
  2. ^ Plantstones could help lock away carbon,Nowak, Rachel, New Scientist Magazine issue 2637, January 5 2008, Accessed January 2008]

参考[编辑]

  • (中文)派潘诺 多洛雷斯著,《植硅石分析》北京:北京大学出版社,1994.3
  • Piperno, D. R. 1988. Phytolith analysis: an archaeological and geological perspective.
  • Thorn, V. C. 2004. An annotated bibliography of phytolith analysis and atlas of selected New Zealand subantarctic and subalphine phytoliths.
  • Meunier, J. D. 2001. Phytoliths: applications in earth sciences and human history.
  • Kealhofer, L. 1998. Opal phytoliths in Southeast Asian flora.
  • Rapp, G. R. 1992. Phytolith systematics: emerging issues.
  • Ciochon, R. L., Piperno, D. R. and Thompson, R. G. 1990. Opal phytoliths found on the teeth of the extinct ape Gigantopithecus blacki: Implications for paleodietary studies. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 87: 8120-8124.
  • Twiss, P. C., Suess, E., & Smith, R. M. 1969. Morphological classification of grass phytoliths. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. America.
  • Pearsall, D. M. 2004. Plants and People in Ancient Ecuador: The Ethnobotany of the Jama River Valley. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Case Studies in Archaeology Series, Belmont , CA 180 pp.
  • Pearsall, D. M. 2000. Paleoethnobotany. A Handbook of Procedures. Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego. 700 pp.
  • Piperno, D. R. and D. M. Pearsall. 1998. The Origins of Agriculture in the Lowland Neotropics. Academic Press, San Diego. 400 pp.
  • Pearsall, D. M., K. Chandler-Ezell, and J. A. Zeidler. 2004. Maize in ancient Ecuador: Results of residue analysis of stone tools from the Real Alto site. Journal of Archaeological Science 31:423-442.
  • Darwin, C. R. 1846. "An Account of the Fine Dust Which Often Falls on Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean," Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 2 (Read 4 June 1845): 26-30. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1672&viewtype=text&pageseq=3).

外部链接[编辑]