植矽體

維基百科,自由的百科全書
跳至導覽 跳至搜尋
蘆葦中扇型植矽體的顯微形象,可見風化的凹坑

植矽體(英語:phytolith),是存在於多種高等植物細胞或細胞間隙中的顯微結構小體,其主要成分為二氧化矽,中文曾譯植矽石、植物矽酸體等,現在學界統一稱之為植矽體。植矽體的大小和形狀與植物種類與部位有關,其形態具有鑑定意義,特別是禾本科植物,最好的情況可以鑑定到種。植物中還常見一些草酸鈣質的顆粒,被稱為植鈣體。

功能[編輯]

植矽體有多種功能。一些植矽體可能和植物的結構和支撐功能有關,對於許多農作物來說,可以防止倒伏;在某些植物中,植矽體可能也具有一定的防禦病蟲害及食草動物的作用。

應用[編輯]

考古學[編輯]

植矽體容易保存在考古地層與遺物中,因此常用來鑑定史前栽培植物。

古生物學[編輯]

植矽體在化石遺存中很豐富,在晚泥盆紀地層中就有發現,可用來追溯古生物環境與植被變遷。[1]

地球化學[編輯]

最近的研究還發現,元素也可以在許多植矽體中積聚。[2]

注釋[編輯]

  1. ^ Carter, J.A. Late Devonian, Permian and Triassic phytoliths from Antarctica. Micropaleontology. 1999, 45 (1): 56–61 [2008-04-22]. doi:10.2307/1486202. 
  2. ^ Plantstones could help lock away carbon,Nowak, Rachel, New Scientist Magazine issue 2637, January 5 2008, Accessed January 2008]

參考[編輯]

  • (中文)派潘諾 多洛雷斯著,《植矽石分析》北京:北京大學出版社,1994.3
  • Piperno, D. R. 1988. Phytolith analysis: an archaeological and geological perspective.
  • Thorn, V. C. 2004. An annotated bibliography of phytolith analysis and atlas of selected New Zealand subantarctic and subalphine phytoliths.
  • Meunier, J. D. 2001. Phytoliths: applications in earth sciences and human history.
  • Kealhofer, L. 1998. Opal phytoliths in Southeast Asian flora.
  • Rapp, G. R. 1992. Phytolith systematics: emerging issues.
  • Ciochon, R. L., Piperno, D. R. and Thompson, R. G. 1990. Opal phytoliths found on the teeth of the extinct ape Gigantopithecus blacki: Implications for paleodietary studies. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 87: 8120-8124.
  • Twiss, P. C., Suess, E., & Smith, R. M. 1969. Morphological classification of grass phytoliths. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. America.
  • Pearsall, D. M. 2004. Plants and People in Ancient Ecuador: The Ethnobotany of the Jama River Valley. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Case Studies in Archaeology Series, Belmont , CA 180 pp.
  • Pearsall, D. M. 2000. Paleoethnobotany. A Handbook of Procedures. Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego. 700 pp.
  • Piperno, D. R. and D. M. Pearsall. 1998. The Origins of Agriculture in the Lowland Neotropics. Academic Press, San Diego. 400 pp.
  • Pearsall, D. M., K. Chandler-Ezell, and J. A. Zeidler. 2004. Maize in ancient Ecuador: Results of residue analysis of stone tools from the Real Alto site. Journal of Archaeological Science 31:423-442.
  • Darwin, C. R. 1846. "An Account of the Fine Dust Which Often Falls on Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean," Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 2 (Read 4 June 1845): 26-30. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1672&viewtype=text&pageseq=3).

外部連結[編輯]