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納瓦霍人

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納瓦霍
Navajo (Diné)
Navajo medicine man.jpg
Navajo medicine man
分佈地區
 美國
納瓦霍族保留地 納瓦霍族保留地, 亚利桑那州 亞利桑那,
科罗拉多州 科羅拉多,
新墨西哥州 新墨西哥, 犹他州 猶他
語言
納瓦霍語, 英語, 西班牙語
宗教信仰
納瓦霍人傳統信仰, 基督新教, 美國原住民族教會 (NAC), 其他
相关族群
其他阿帕契民族

納瓦霍英語西班牙語NavajoDiné)是美國西南部的一支原住民族,為北美洲地區現存最大的美洲原住民族群,人口據估計約有30萬人。「納瓦霍」族名由西班牙人所起,族人則自稱為「Diné」,即納瓦霍語「人」之意。

納瓦霍族也擁有現今美國面積最大的印第安保留地,部族政府稱為Navajo Nation,橫跨亞利桑那,新墨西哥和猶他三州,面積7萬平方公里。部族政府拥有地方自治權,首府設在亞利桑那州温多罗克(Window Rock)鎮。

语言[编辑]

納瓦霍族群有自己的语言納瓦霍語,沒有文字,只能口口相傳,其构成相当复杂,外族人幾乎無人能瞭解。因此,在太平洋戰爭中曾用于作为密码进行明码呼叫用,以讓日本軍無法破解美方密碼,至二戰結束时也沒有被破解。

參見[编辑]

相關書籍[编辑]

  • Bailey, L. R. (1964). The Long Walk: A History of the Navaho Wars, 1846–1868.
  • Bighorse, Tiana. (1990). Bighorse the Warrior. Ed. Noel Bennett, Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  • Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. 1970. ISBN 0-330-23219-3. 
  • Brugge, David M. Navajos in the Catholic Church Records of New Mexico 1694–1875. Window Rock, Arizona: Reseach Section, The Navajo Tribe. 1968. 
  • Clarke, Dwight L. (1961). Stephen Watts Kearny: Soldier of the West. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press a
  • Downs, James F. (1972). The Navajo. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
  • Dyke, Walter. Son of Old Man Hat. Lincoln, Nebraska: Bison Books & University of Nebraska Press. 1967 [1938]. LCCN 44-2654. 
  • Forbes, Jack D. Apache, Navajo and Spaniard. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. 1960. LCCN 60-13480. 
  • Gilpin, Laura. (1968). The Enduring Navaho. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Gold, Peter. Navajo & Tibetan Sacred Wisdom: The Circle of the Spirit. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International. 1994. ISBN 0-89281-411-X. .
  • Hammond, George P. and Rey, Agapito (editors) (1940). Narratives of the Coronado Expedition 1540–1542. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Henderson, Richard.(1994). “Replicating Dog Travois Travel on the Northern Plains.” Plains Anthropologist, V39:145–59
  • Iverson, Peter. (2002). Diné: A History of the Navahos. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-2714-1
  • Kelly, Lawrence (1970). Navajo Roundup, Pruett Pub. Co., Colorado.
  • Kluckholm, Clyde & Leighton, Dorothea (1946). The Navaho. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.
  • Loewen, James. W. (1999). Lies Across America. Pages 100–101; The New Press.
  • McNitt, Frank. (1972). Navajo Wars. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Newcomb, Franc Johnson. Hosteen Klah: Navajo Medicine Man and Sand Painter. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. 1964. LCCCN 64-20759. 
  • Plog, Stephen. Ancient Peoples of the American Southwest. Thames and London, LTD, London, England, 1997. ISBN 0-500-27939-X.
  • Compiled (1973). Roessel, Ruth (editor). Navajo Stories of the Long Walk Period. Tsaile, Arizona: Navajo Community College Press.
  • Compiled. Roessel, Ruth, 编. Navajo Livestock Reduction: A National Disgrace. Tsaile, Arizona: Navajo Community College Press. 1974. ISBN 0-912586-18-4. 
  • Terrell, J. U. (1970). The Navajos.
  • Underhill, Ruth M. (1956). The Navahos. Norman: The University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Witherspoon, Gary. (1977). Language and Art in the Navajo Universe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

外部連結[编辑]