钩子编程

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钩子编程(hooking),也称作“挂钩”,是计算机程序设计术语,指通过拦截软件模块英语Modular programming间的函数调用、消息传递、事件传递来修改或扩展操作系统、应用程序或其他软件组件的行为的各种技术。处理被拦截的函数调用、事件、消息的代码,被称为钩子(hook)。

钩子编程有多种用途,如调试、扩展功能。例如在键盘或鼠标事件到达应用程序之前拦截这些事件;拦截应用程序或其他模块的操作系统调用以监督行为、修改功能。也广泛用于benchmarking程序,如度量3D游戏的帧率

钩子编程也被用于恶意代码,如rootkit是各种通过假扮系统API调用输出来隐藏自身进程的可见性的工具与技术;游戏外挂是另一类例子。

方法[编辑]

物理修改[编辑]

在应用程序执行之前,物理修改可执行程序,这典型通过找到函数调用入口点,修改入口点使之在函数被执行前先执行其他的代码。另一种挂钩的方法是修改可执行程序的输入表(import table)。还有一种挂钩方法是采用包装库,使得应用程序不需修改即可调用该包装库完成其功能,而在包装库中插入钩子然后再调用原有的库。

运行时修改[编辑]

操作系统与软件可提供方法,在运行时插入事件钩子。Microsoft Windows允许插入钩子以处理或修改对话框、滚动条、菜单等的系统事件、应用程序事件;插入、删除、处理或修改键盘鼠标事件。Linux允许类似的钩子通过NetFilter以处理网络事件。

如果没有上述机制或权限,也可拦截进程的库函数调用,在函数调用开始处注入代码。这可通过修改内存中的进程的中断向量表英语Interrupt vector table输入表(import table)实现。

示例代码[编辑]

虚函数表挂钩[编辑]

C++使用虚函数,因此可在运行时直接修改虚函数表的内容来挂钩。 Window上很多软件库以COM方式提供的(如DirectX), 所以有需求拦截COM调用的COM Hook。COM里的接口是C++虚表的形式提供的,所以COM的Hook其实就是虚表(vtable)的Hook。ATL就是用接口替代的方式来调试和记录COM接口引用计数的次数

class VirtualTable {  // example class  
 public:  
 virtual void VirtualFunction01( ticket );  
};

void VirtualTable::VirtualFunction01( ticket )  {  
  printf("VirtualFunction01 called");  
}

typedef void ( __thiscall* VirtualFunction01_t )( ticket* thisptr );  
VirtualFunction01_t g_org_VirtualFunction01;

 //our detour function  
void __fastcall hk_VirtualFunction01( ticket* thisptr, int edx )  {  
  printf("Custom function called");  
  //call the original function  
  g_org_VirtualFunction01(thisptr);  
}  
int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])  {

 DWORD oldProtection;

 VirtualTable* myTable = new VirtualTable();  
 void** base = *(void***)myTable;

 VirtualProtect( &base[0], 4, PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE, &oldProtection );  
 //save the original function  
 g_org_VirtualFunction01 = (VirtualFunction01_t)base[0];  
 //overwrite  
 base[0] = &hk_VirtualFunction01;  
 VirtualProtect( &base[0], 4, oldProtection, 0 );

 //call the virtual function (now hooked) from our class instance  
 myTable->VirtualFunction01();

 return 0;  
}

C#键盘事件钩子[编辑]

using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

namespace Hooks
{
    public class KeyHook
    {
        /* Member variables */
        protected static int Hook;
        protected static LowLevelKeyboardDelegate Delegate;
        protected static readonly object Lock = new object();
        protected static bool IsRegistered = false;

        /* DLL imports */
        [DllImport("user32")]
        private static extern int SetWindowsHookEx(int idHook, LowLevelKeyboardDelegate lpfn,
            int hmod, int dwThreadId);

        [DllImport("user32")]
        private static extern int CallNextHookEx(int hHook, int nCode, int wParam, KBDLLHOOKSTRUCT lParam);

        [DllImport("user32")]
        private static extern int UnhookWindowsHookEx(int hHook);

        /* Types & constants */
        protected delegate int LowLevelKeyboardDelegate(int nCode, int wParam, ref KBDLLHOOKSTRUCT lParam);
        private const int HC_ACTION = 0;
        private const int WM_KEYDOWN = 0x0100;
        private const int WM_KEYUP = 0x0101;
        private const int WH_KEYBOARD_LL = 13;

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        public struct KBDLLHOOKSTRUCT
        {
            public int vkCode;
            public int scanCode;
            public int flags;
            public int time;
            public int dwExtraInfo;
        }

        /* Methods */
        static private int LowLevelKeyboardHandler(int nCode, int wParam, ref KBDLLHOOKSTRUCT lParam)
        {
            if (nCode == HC_ACTION)
            {
                if (wParam == WM_KEYDOWN)
                    System.Console.Out.WriteLine("Key Down: " + lParam.vkCode);
                else if (wParam == WM_KEYUP)
                    System.Console.Out.WriteLine("Key Up: " + lParam.vkCode);
            }
            return CallNextHookEx(Hook, nCode, wParam, lParam);
        }
        
        public static bool RegisterHook()
        {
            lock (Lock)
            {
                if (IsRegistered)
                    return true;
                Delegate = LowLevelKeyboardHandler;
                Hook = SetWindowsHookEx(
                    WH_KEYBOARD_LL, Delegate,
                    Marshal.GetHINSTANCE(
                        System.Reflection.Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly().GetModules()[0]
                    ).ToInt32(), 0
                );

                if (Hook != 0)
                    return IsRegistered = true;
                Delegate = null;
                return false;
            }
        }

        public static bool UnregisterHook()
        {
            lock (Lock)
            {
                return IsRegistered = (UnhookWindowsHookEx(Hook) != 0);
            }
        }
    }
}

使用跳转指令的API/函数钩子拦截[编辑]

下述例子使用JMP英语JMP (x86 instruction)指令,修改windows API中的MessageBoxW函数的前6个字节执行其他代码。这段代码编译为DLL文件,采用DLL注入技术让应用程序使用。[1]微软提供了封装好的Detours库用于此目的。

/*
 This idea is based on chrom-lib approach, Distributed under GNU LGPL License.
 Source chrom-lib: https://github.com/linuxexp/chrom-lib
 Copyright (C) 2011  Raja Jamwal
*/
#include <windows.h>  
#define SIZE 6

 typedef int (WINAPI *pMessageBoxW)(HWND, LPCWSTR, LPCWSTR, UINT);  // Messagebox prototype
 int WINAPI MyMessageBoxW(HWND, LPCWSTR, LPCWSTR, UINT);            // Our detour

 void BeginRedirect(LPVOID);                                        
 pMessageBoxW pOrigMBAddress = NULL;                                // address of original
 BYTE oldBytes[SIZE] = {0};                                         // backup
 BYTE JMP[SIZE] = {0};                                              // 6 byte JMP instruction
 DWORD oldProtect, myProtect = PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE;

 INT APIENTRY DllMain(HMODULE hDLL, DWORD Reason, LPVOID Reserved)  
 {  
   switch(Reason)  
   {  
   case DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH:                                        // if attached
     pOrigMBAddress = (pMessageBoxW)                      
       GetProcAddress(GetModuleHandle("user32.dll"),               // get address of original 
               "MessageBoxW");  
     if(pOrigMBAddress != NULL)  
       BeginRedirect(MyMessageBoxW);                               // start detouring
     break;

   case DLL_PROCESS_DETACH:  
     memcpy(pOrigMBAddress, oldBytes, SIZE);                       // restore backup

   case DLL_THREAD_ATTACH:  
   case DLL_THREAD_DETACH:  
     break;  
   }  
   return TRUE;  
 }

 void BeginRedirect(LPVOID newFunction)  
 {  
   BYTE tempJMP[SIZE] = {0xE9, 0x90, 0x90, 0x90, 0x90, 0xC3};         // 0xE9 = JMP 0x90 = NOP 0xC3 = RET
   memcpy(JMP, tempJMP, SIZE);                                        // store jmp instruction to JMP
   DWORD JMPSize = ((DWORD)newFunction - (DWORD)pOrigMBAddress - 5);  // calculate jump distance
   VirtualProtect((LPVOID)pOrigMBAddress, SIZE,                       // assign read write protection
           PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE, &oldProtect);  
   memcpy(oldBytes, pOrigMBAddress, SIZE);                            // make backup
   memcpy(&JMP[1], &JMPSize, 4);                              // fill the nop's with the jump distance (JMP,distance(4bytes),RET)
   memcpy(pOrigMBAddress, JMP, SIZE);                                 // set jump instruction at the beginning of the original function
   VirtualProtect((LPVOID)pOrigMBAddress, SIZE, oldProtect, NULL);    // reset protection
 }

 int WINAPI MyMessageBoxW(HWND hWnd, LPCWSTR lpText, LPCWSTR lpCaption, UINT uiType)  
 {  
   VirtualProtect((LPVOID)pOrigMBAddress, SIZE, myProtect, NULL);     // assign read write protection
   memcpy(pOrigMBAddress, oldBytes, SIZE);                            // restore backup
   int retValue = MessageBoxW(hWnd, lpText, lpCaption, uiType);       // get return value of original function
   memcpy(pOrigMBAddress, JMP, SIZE);                                 // set the jump instruction again
   VirtualProtect((LPVOID)pOrigMBAddress, SIZE, oldProtect, NULL);    // reset protection
   return retValue;                                                   // return original return value
 }

Netfilter钩子[编辑]

使用Netfilter钩子修改Linux内核的网络交通。

#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/skbuff.h>

#include <linux/ip.h>
#include <linux/tcp.h>
#include <linux/in.h>
#include <linux/netfilter.h>
#include <linux/netfilter_ipv4.h>

/* Port we want to drop packets on */
static const uint16_t port = 25;

/* This is the hook function itself */
static unsigned int hook_func(unsigned int hooknum,
                       struct sk_buff **pskb,
                       const struct net_device *in,
                       const struct net_device *out,
                       int (*okfn)(struct sk_buff *))
{
        struct iphdr *iph = ip_hdr(*pskb);
        struct tcphdr *tcph, tcpbuf;

        if (iph->protocol != IPPROTO_TCP)
                return NF_ACCEPT;

        tcph = skb_header_pointer(*pskb, ip_hdrlen(*pskb), sizeof(*tcph), &tcpbuf);
        if (tcph == NULL)
                return NF_ACCEPT;

        return (tcph->dest == port) ? NF_DROP : NF_ACCEPT;
}

/* Used to register our hook function */
static struct nf_hook_ops nfho = {
        .hook     = hook_func,
        .hooknum  = NF_IP_PRE_ROUTING,
        .pf       = NFPROTO_IPV4,
        .priority = NF_IP_PRI_FIRST,
};

static __init int my_init(void)
{
        return nf_register_hook(&nfho);
}

static __exit void my_exit(void)
{
    nf_unregister_hook(&nfho);
}

module_init(my_init);
module_exit(my_exit);

内部IAT钩子[编辑]

下例展示通过修改可执行程序的输入地址表(IAT),把钩子函数替代原函数。

#include <windows.h>

typedef int(__stdcall *pMessageBoxA) (HWND hWnd, LPCSTR lpText, LPCSTR lpCaption, UINT uType); //This is the 'type' of the MessageBoxA call.
pMessageBoxA RealMessageBoxA; //This will store a pointer to the original function.

void DetourIATptr(const char* function, void* newfunction, HMODULE module);

int __stdcall NewMessageBoxA(HWND hWnd, LPCSTR lpText, LPCSTR lpCaption, UINT uType) { //Our fake function
    printf("The String Sent to MessageBoxA Was : %s\n", lpText);
    return RealMessageBoxA(hWnd, lpText, lpCaption, uType); //Call the real function
}

int main(int argc, CHAR *argv[]) {
   DetourIATptr("MessageBoxA",(void*)NewMessageBoxA,0); //Hook the function
   MessageBoxA(NULL, "Just A MessageBox", "Just A MessageBox", 0); //Call the function -- this will invoke our fake hook.
   return 0;
}

void **IATfind(const char *function, HMODULE module) { //Find the IAT (Import Address Table) entry specific to the given function.
	int ip = 0;
	if (module == 0)
		module = GetModuleHandle(0);
	PIMAGE_DOS_HEADER pImgDosHeaders = (PIMAGE_DOS_HEADER)module;
	PIMAGE_NT_HEADERS pImgNTHeaders = (PIMAGE_NT_HEADERS)((LPBYTE)pImgDosHeaders + pImgDosHeaders->e_lfanew);
	PIMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR pImgImportDesc = (PIMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR)((LPBYTE)pImgDosHeaders + pImgNTHeaders->OptionalHeader.DataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_IMPORT].VirtualAddress);

	if (pImgDosHeaders->e_magic != IMAGE_DOS_SIGNATURE)
		printf("libPE Error : e_magic is no valid DOS signature\n");

	for (IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR *iid = pImgImportDesc; iid->Name != NULL; iid++) {
		for (int funcIdx = 0; *(funcIdx + (LPVOID*)(iid->FirstThunk + (SIZE_T)module)) != NULL; funcIdx++) {
			char *modFuncName = (char*)(*(funcIdx + (SIZE_T*)(iid->OriginalFirstThunk + (SIZE_T)module)) + (SIZE_T)module + 2);
			const uintptr_t nModFuncName = (uintptr_t)modFuncName;
			bool isString = !(nModFuncName & (sizeof(nModFuncName) == 4 ? 0x80000000 : 0x8000000000000000));
			if (isString) {
				if (!_stricmp(function, modFuncName))
					return funcIdx + (LPVOID*)(iid->FirstThunk + (SIZE_T)module);
			}
		}
	}
	return 0;
}

void DetourIATptr(const char *function, void *newfunction, HMODULE module) {
	void **funcptr = IATfind(function, module);
	if (*funcptr == newfunction)
		 return;

	DWORD oldrights, newrights = PAGE_READWRITE;
	//Update the protection to READWRITE
	VirtualProtect(funcptr, sizeof(LPVOID), newrights, &oldrights);

	RealMessageBoxA = (pMessageBoxA)*funcptr; //Some compilers require the cast like "MinGW" not sure about MSVC
	*funcptr = newfunction;

	//Restore the old memory protection flags.
	VirtualProtect(funcptr, sizeof(LPVOID), oldrights, &newrights);
}

Windows API提供的挂钩函数[编辑]

  • SetWinEventHook:基本没有权限问题,也就是说这个API可以Hook到高权限程序的事件,同时支持进程内(WINEVENT_INCONTEXT)和进程外(WINEVENT_OUTOFCONTEXT)2种Hook方式,可以进程外的方式Hook到64位程序的事件。
  • SetWindowsHookEx:64位编程情形,32位DLL没法直接注入到64位的应用程序里面, 因为地址空间完全不一样。UAC打开的情况下低权限程序没法Hook高权限程序。对于64位问题,解决方法是提供2个DLL,分别可以Hook32和64位程序。对于权限问题,通过注册系统服务,由服务进程创建工作进程。因为Windows Vista开始有了Session隔离机制,服务进程运行在Session 0,用户程序运行在Session 1, Session 2等,如果直接在服务程序里干活,我们就只能在Session 0里工作。通过创建进程,可以在DuplicateTokenEx后将Token的SessionID设置成目标Session,并且在CreateProcessAsUser时指定目标WinStation和Desktop, 这样就获得了System权限,并且也可以和当前桌面进程交互。

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

外部链接[编辑]

Windows[编辑]

  • Information on Import Address Table function hooking.
  • Information from Microsoft on hooking
  • Information and various techniques regarding x86 hooking.
  • APISpy32 is an application used to hook win32 API.
  • Detours is a general purpose function hooking library created by Microsoft Research which works in C / C++.
  • winspy Three ways to inject code into another process.
  • HookTool SDK (ACF SDK) Provides a comprehensive overview on API hooking and code injection. A commercial product available too.
  • madCodeHook is a commercial x86 and x64 API hooking and DLL injection library for C++ and Delphi.
  • EasyHook is an open source hooking engine supporting x86 and x64 in Windows in both user and kernel land.
  • SpyStudio Application Trace SpyStudio is an Application tracer which hook calls, displaying the results in a structured way.
  • rohitab.com API Monitor is a freeware application that can hook and display 10,000+ Windows APIs and COM Interfaces in 32-bit and 64-bit applications and services.
  • Deviare API Hook Deviare is a freeware inter-process hook framework that can be used to intercept other processes' API calls and show full-parameter information or create API monitors.
  • WinAPIOverride WinAPIOverride is a freeware for non commercial use. It can hook win32 API, COM, OLE, ActiveX, .NET in 32-bit and 64-bit processes. It includes monitoring post analysis tools.
  • urmem C++11 cross-platform library (x86) for working with memory (hooks, patches, pointer's wrapper, signature scanner etc.)

Linux[编辑]

  • [1] A student research project that utilizes hooking.
  • [2] Functionality that allows a piece of software to observe and control the execution of another process.
  • [3] Use of LD_PRELOAD to hook shared library calls.

Emacs[编辑]

  • Emacs Hooks Hooks are an important mechanism for customization of Emacs. A hook is a Lisp variable which holds a list of functions, to be called on some well-defined occasion. (This is called running the hook.)

OS X 与 iOS[编辑]

  • Cydia Substrate is a framework for jailbroken iOS devices allowing developers to hook into any other framework or application.
  • harpoon is an OS X library for runtime function hooking.

Depth API Hooking[编辑]