男性气质

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米开朗基罗的《大卫像》常被人为是西方男子气的典型代表

男性气质MasculinityManlinessManhood),也称作男子气概男性化男人味,是指通常与男性相关的一组特质、行为和角色。男性气质包括生理决定的因素和社会决定的因素[1][2][3],故男性气质与人体解剖学上的男性不同[4][5] ,男性和女性都可能表现出男性化特质和行为。既有男性气质又有女性气质的人称为双性性格

传统上,男性化特质包括勇气独立自信[6][7][8],尽管男性气质受到诸多社会和文化因素的影响,在不同的地方和环境会有所变化[9]

过度强调男性自尊和力量(通常与不计后果和责任相联系)称为大男子主义[10]

概念[编辑]

大多数时候摔跤被当做一种男性化的运动

男性化并没有一个清晰的、可以举世通用的概念,但许多文化中都有“男性化”概念或成见,比如勇气、自立、自信、强壮与领导力等。[6][11][12] 雷温·康奈尔将传统的男性气质定义为“霸权男性气概”,在一些文化中,这是社会普遍认识中男性所应该具有的气质。尤其是在父系社会中,这可以被当做男性统治权的保障,从而使得女性处于从属地位。[13]

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Marianne van den Wijngaard. Reinventing the sexes: the biomedical construction of femininity and masculinity. Race, gender, and science. Indiana University Press. 1997: 171 pages [June 3, 2011]. ISBN 0-253-21087-9. (原始内容存档于2015-09-09). 
  2. ^ Hale Martin, Stephen Edward Finn. Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A. U of Minnesota Press. 2010: 310 pages [June 3, 2011]. ISBN 0-8166-2445-3. (原始内容存档于2015-11-02). 
  3. ^ Richard Dunphy. Sexual politics: an introduction. Edinburgh University Press. 2000: 240 pages [June 3, 2011]. ISBN 0-7486-1247-5. (原始内容存档于2015-03-25). 
  4. ^ Ferrante, Joan. Sociology: A Global Perspective 7th. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. : 269–272. ISBN 0-8400-3204-8. 
  5. ^ Gender, Women and Health: What do we mean by "sex" and "gender"?'页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆, The World Health Organization
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Vetterling-Braggin, Mary "Femininity," "masculinity," and "androgyny": a modern philosophical discussion
  7. ^ Worell, Judith, Encyclopedia of women and gender: sex similarities and differences and the impact of society on gender, Volume 1 Elsevier, 2001, ISBN 0-12-227246-3, ISBN 978-0-12-227246-2
  8. ^ Thomas, R. Murray. Recent Theories of Human Development. Sage Publications. 2000: 248 [2015-03-26]. ISBN 0761922474. (原始内容存档于2015-09-10). Gender feminists also consider traditional feminine traits (gentleness, modesty, humility, sacrifice, supportiveness, empathy, compassion, tenderness, nurturance, intuitiveness, sensitivity, unselfishness) morally superior to the traditional masculine traits (courage, strong will, ambition, independence, assertiveness, initiative, rationality and emotional control). 
  9. ^ Witt, edited by Charlotte. Feminist Metaphysics: Explorations in the Ontology of Sex, Gender and Identity. Dordrecht: Springer. 2010: 77. ISBN 90-481-3782-9. 
  10. ^ Machismo (exaggerated masculinity) - Encyclopædia Britannica online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [6 March 2015]. (原始内容存档于2015-03-26). 
  11. ^ George, A., "Reinventing honorable masculinity" Men and Masculinities
  12. ^ Bosson, J. K., & Vandello, J. A. (2011). Precarious manhood and its links to action and aggression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 82-86.
  13. ^ Connell, R.W. Masculinities. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2005: 77 [1995]. 

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