失認症

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失認症
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失認症導致患者對感覺刺激缺乏認識能力
分類和外部資源
醫學專科 神經內科
ICD-10 F80.2 , F88.0 and R48.1
ICD-9-CM 784.69
eMedicine agnosia/
MeSH D000377

失認症(英語:agnosia)是指由大腦受損而導致的認知障礙。患者在意識正常、無感覺障礙的情況下,對傳入的感覺刺激缺乏認識能力,包括物體失認、相貌失認、聽覺失認等。[1]須注意的是,此種辨識障礙並非因感覺缺失(如視野缺損,半側無知覺)、智力退化、意識或注意力的異常,對該物體不熟悉而引起。而失認症通常只會在某項感覺模式缺損,因此無法透過一種感覺途徑(如視覺)辨識出的物體,可以透過另一種感覺途徑(如觸覺)來辨識。[2]

類型[編輯]

  • 運動失認(akinetopsia)[3]
  • 病感失認(anosognosia)
  • 統覺性視覺失認(apperceptive visual agnosia)[4]
  • 聯想性視覺失認(associative visual agnosia)
  • 立體覺失認(astereognosis)
  • 聽覺失認(auditory agnosia)[5]
  • 言語失認(auditory verbal agnosia)
  • 自體失認(autotopagnosia)
  • 皮質性色盲(cerebral achromatopsia)[6][7]
  • 皮性質聾(cortical deafness)
  • 環境失認(environmental agnosia)[8]
  • 手指失認(finger agnosia)
  • 形狀失認(form agnosia)
  • 聯合性失認(integrative agnosia)
  • 痛覺失認(pain agnosia)
  • 噪音失認(phonagnosia)[9]
  • 臉盲(prosopagnosia)
  • 純失讀(pure alexia)[8]
  • 語義失認(semantic agnosia)[10]
  • 社會情緒失認(social-emotional agnosia)
  • 畫片中動作失認(simultanagnosia)[11]
  • 觸覺失認(tactile agnosia)[12]
  • 時間失認(time agnosia)
  • 地形定向障礙(topographical disorientation)[13]
  • 視空間認知障礙(visuospatial dysgnosia)
  • 視覺失認(visual agnosia)[14]

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ AGNOSIA. 
  2. ^ 陳雅資 譯. 後天性言語和語言障礙. 台北: 合計圖書出版社. ISBN 978-986-126-983-2. 
  3. ^ Zeki, S. Cerebral akinetopsia (visual motion blindness). Brain. 1991, 114: 811–824. PMID 2043951. doi:10.1093/brain/114.2.811. 
  4. ^ Riddoch MJ, Humphreys GW. Visual agnosia. Neurol Clin. May 2003, 21 (2): 501–20. PMID 12916489. doi:10.1016/s0733-8619(02)00095-6. 
  5. ^ Vignolo, L. A. Auditory Agnosia. Biological Sciences. 1982, 298 (1089): 49–57. PMID 6125975. doi:10.1098/rstb.1982.0071. 
  6. ^ Cowey A, Alexander I, Heywood C, Kentridge R. Pupillary responses to coloured and contourless displays in total cerebral achromatopsia. Brain. August 2008, 131 (Pt 8): 2153–60. PMID 18550620. doi:10.1093/brain/awn110. 
  7. ^ Woodward, T. S; M. J Dixon; K. T Mullen; K. M Christensen; D. N. Bub. Analysis of errors in color agnosia: A single case study. Neurocase. 1999, 5: 95–108. doi:10.1093/neucas/5.2.95. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Burns, MS. Clinical management of agnosia. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2004, 11 (1): 1–9. PMID 14872395. doi:10.1310/N13K-YKYQ-3XX1-NFAV. (原始內容存檔於2013-01-28). 
  9. ^ Van Lancker DR, Cummings JL, Kreiman J, Dobkin BH. Phonagnosia: a dissociation between familiar and unfamiliar voices. Cortex. June 1988, 24 (2): 195–209. PMID 3416603. doi:10.1016/s0010-9452(88)80029-7. 
  10. ^ Magnié MN, Ferreira CT, Giusiano B, Poncet M. Category specificity in object agnosia: preservation of sensorimotor experiences related to objects. Neuropsychologia. January 1999, 37 (1): 67–74. PMID 9920472. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(98)00045-1. 
  11. ^ Coslett HB, Saffran E. Simultanagnosia. To see but not two see. Brain. August 1991, 114 (4): 1523–45. PMID 1884165. doi:10.1093/brain/114.4.1523. 
  12. ^ Reed CL, Caselli RJ, Farah MJ. Tactile agnosia. Underlying impairment and implications for normal tactile object recognition. Brain. June 1996, 119 (3): 875–88. PMID 8673499. doi:10.1093/brain/119.3.875. 
  13. ^ Mendez, Mario F; Cherrier, Monique M. Agnosia for scenes in topographagnosia. Neuropsychologia: 1387–1395. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(03)00041-1. 
  14. ^ Greene JD. Apraxia, agnosias, and higher visual function abnormalities. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. December 2005, 76 (Suppl 5): v25–34. PMC 1765708. PMID 16291919. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2005.081885.