西班牙開局

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本條目使用代數記譜法來描述國際象棋棋子的走法。

西班牙開局國際象棋開局開放性開局的一種,走法為: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5。這是最常用的國際象棋開局之一。

西班牙開局
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a8 黑 車
c8 黑 象
d8 黑 后
e8 黑 王
f8 黑 象
g8 黑 馬
h8 黑 車
a7 黑 兵
b7 黑 兵
c7 黑 兵
d7 黑 兵
f7 黑 兵
g7 黑 兵
h7 黑 兵
c6 黑 馬
b5 白 象
e5 黑 兵
e4 白 兵
f3 白 馬
a2 白 兵
b2 白 兵
c2 白 兵
d2 白 兵
f2 白 兵
g2 白 兵
h2 白 兵
a1 白 車
b1 白 馬
c1 白 象
d1 白 后
e1 白 王
h1 白 車
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走法 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5
編號 C60–C99
母局 開放性開局
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歷史[编辑]

西班牙開局英语Ruy Lopez)以一名西班牙牧師Ruy López de Segura命名,他在1561年出版了《國際象棋書》(Template:Lang-sp)並在其中介紹了此開局。但此開局早在1490年的哥廷根手稿英语Göttingen manuscript中已有記載。它在19世紀中才被象棋理論家卡爾·雅尼什英语Carl Jaenisch發揚光大,現今已十分流行,許多象棋大師也會使用。可是,由於此開局給與黑方很大的打擊,而Ruy López de Segura又是在宗教裁判時期的牧師,因此此開局給取了個諢名「西班牙酷刑」。

概論[编辑]

雖然3.Bb5正在攻擊保護e兵的c馬,但白方不能以4.Bxc6 dxc6 5.Nxe5吃兵,因5...Qd4或5...Qg5叫吃馬和兵,給予黑方優勢。然而,3.Bb5能為王車易位作準備,及盯住黑王。黑方有很多回應可選擇,但要下工夫才能取得均勢。

摩菲防禦[编辑]

3...a6[编辑]

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摩菲防禦:3...a6

保羅·摩菲英语Paul Morphy命名,但他並不是其發明者(Ercole del Rio在其著作Sopra il giuoco degli Scacchi, Osservazioni pratiche dell'anonimo Modenese中首次提到此著)。此步逼迫b5象移動,在超過75%比試中黑方選擇了這一著。除了封閉性防禦外有以下變著:

  • 4.Bxc6
  • 4.Ba4
    • 4...b5 5.Bb3 Na5
    • 4...b5 5.Bb3 Bc5
    • 4...Bc5
    • 4...d6
    • 4...f5
    • 4...Nf6 5.0-0 b5 6.Bb3 Bb7
    • 4...Nf6 5.0-0 b5 6.Bb3 Bc5
    • 4...Nf6 5.0-0 Bc5
    • 4...Nf6 5.0-0 d6
    • 4...Nf6 5.0-0 Nxe4

兌子變著[编辑]

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兌子變著4.Bxc6 dxc6(ECO C68–C69)

兌子變著4.Bxc6後,黑方通常會應4...dxc6,4...bxc6會導致5.d4 exd4 6.Qxd4,白方控制中心。4...dxc6後,雖然黑方兵形被破壞,但他有機會發展堅固的防禦。鮑比·菲舍爾在1960年代發展了5.0-0取代給與黑方微小優勢的5.d4,黑方可應5...f6、5...Bg4、5...Qd6、5...Qe7、5...Qf6或5...Bd6。

挪威變着[编辑]

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挪威變着(ECO C70)

在3...a6 4.Ba4 b5 5.Bb3 Na5後,通常應着為6.0-0 d6 7.d4 Nxb3,黑方可吃白象,但損失了速度。6.Bxf7+ Kxf7 7.Nxe5+令王移動,但黑方能鞏固其子力。

...Bc5[编辑]

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穆勒防禦

經過超過一個世紀象在e7是較隱健的,但其實象在c5更主動。包括3...a6 4.Ba4 Bc5的古典防禦延遲、3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Bc5的穆勒防禦和3...a6 4.Ba4 b5 5.Bb3 Bc5的格拉茨防禦。

現代斯坦尼茨防禦延遲[编辑]

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3...a6 4.Ba4 d6。此變例能給與黑方更大的空間和鞏固其中心。5.c3(5...f5、5...Bd7 6.d4)、5.c4、5.Bxc6+(5...bxc6 6.d4)、5.d4和5.0-0(5...Bg4 6.h3 h5)皆是可能的續着。

阿爾漢格爾斯克防禦[编辑]

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3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 b5 6.Bb3 Bb7(ECO C78)。局面尖銳,黑方企圖挑戰b3象以補償他延遲的易位。白方有進兵至c3和d4以補足兵形、7.Re1防禦e兵的選擇,但不是7.Ng5 d5 8.exd5 Nd4!。

開放防禦[编辑]

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8...Be6

3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Nxe4。黑方在白方抵消兵力損失時爭奪中心格,常見應着為6.d4 b5 7.Bb3 d5 8.dxe5 Be6 9.c3/Be3/Qe2/Nbd2。當中9.Be3 Be7 10.c3、9.c3 Be7、9.c3 Bc5 10.Nbd2 0-0 11.Bc2 f5/Bf5/Nxf2為主線。

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里加變例:6.d4 exd4 7.Re1 d5 8.Nxd4 Bd6! 9.Nxc6 Bxh2+! 10.Kh1!(10.Kxh2 Qh4+ 11.Kg1 Qxf2+和)Qh4 11.Rxe4+! dxe4 12.Qd8+! Qxd8 13.Nxd8+ Kxd8 14.Kxh2 Be6 15. Be3/Bf4/c3...(15.Nc3 c5!)白稍優。

封閉防禦[编辑]

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3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Be7。黑方威脅要6...b5和7...Nxe4,而白方有以下選擇:

  • 6.Bxc6(兌子變着延遲)
  • 6.d4(中心變着)
  • 6.Qe2(沃勒爾變着)
  • 6.Re1 d6(阿維爾巴赫變着)
  • 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3
    • 7...Bb7(特拉伊科維奇變着)
    • 7...0-0 8.c3 d5(馬歇爾進攻)
    • 7...d6 8.c3 0-0(主線)

兌子變着延遲[编辑]

6.Bxc6(ECO C85)。相較於兌子變着,白方損失了一先,但黑方f6馬和e7象的位置也不佳。

中心變着[编辑]

6.d4(ECO C69),局面較尖銳。黑方若要守住攻勢,必須謹慎。

沃勒爾變着[编辑]

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6.Qe2(ECO C86),由后防禦e兵,車可走到d1,往後為6...b5 7.Bb3 0-0 8.c3 d5/d6。

阿維爾巴赫變着[编辑]

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6.Re1 d6(ECO C87),黑e兵的保護加強。白方可以7.Bxc6 bxc6 8.d4。而7.c3 Bg4(7...b5 8.Bc2,白方得一先)也是可以的,白方可8.h3 Bh5 9.Bxc6 bxc6 10.d4或8.d3(容許Nbd2–f1–g3)。

特拉伊科維奇變着[编辑]

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11...Nf4

6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 Bb7,黑方可以8.c3 d5 9.exd5 Nxd5 10.Nxe5 Nxe5 11.Rxe5 Nf4棄兵。

7...0-0[编辑]

6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 0-0後,白方可8.c3,也可8.a4、8.h3、8.d4或8.d3。另外8.c3 d6也是馬歇爾進攻外的一個選擇。

馬歇爾進攻[编辑]
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11...c6

6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 0-0 8.c3 d5 9.exd5 Nxd5(9...e4較弱) 10.Nxe5 Nxe5 11.Rxe5 c6 12.d3/d4,黑方進攻白方缺乏保護的王翼,但這進攻是不明確及難以抵禦的,因此不少大師均於第8着避免此着法。

主線[编辑]

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8...0-0

6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 d6 8.c3 0-0,通常應着為9.h3,以準備d4進兵、Nbd2–f1–g3及避免黑方Bg4的牽制。為了不讓g3馬能保護e4、給予雙白象開放綫和向黑方王翼施壓,黑方會擴張后翼、佔領中心或向e4施壓。

之後的可能變着是:

  • 9.d3
  • 9.d4 Bg4
  • 9.h3
    • 9...Na5(奇戈林變着)
    • 9...Bb7(扎伊采夫變着)
    • 9...Nb8(布雷耶變着)
    • 9...Nd7(卡爾波夫變着)
    • 9...Be6
    • 9...h6(斯梅斯洛夫變着)
奇戈林變着[编辑]
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11...Qc7

9.h3 Na5(ECO C96–C99),黑馬解除c兵的阻礙,及叫吃白象,但因a5位置不活躍,變着流行度已降低。續着是10.Bc2 c5 11.d4 Qc7(加強保護e兵和藉cxd4開放c線)/Bb7/Nd7。

扎伊采夫變着[编辑]
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12.Nbd2

9.h3 Bb7 10. d4 Re8 11. a4 h6 12. Nbd2,為主要變着之一。11. a4要挑戰黑方被6...b5削弱的后翼,11...h6避免12. Ng5 Rf8 13. Nf3迫和,12. Nbd2要移馬到g3。

布雷耶變着[编辑]
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19...h5

9.h3 Nb8(ECO C94–C95),解除c兵的阻礙,及運馬到d7支持e兵。10.d4 Nbd7 11.Nbd2 Bb7 12.Bc2 Re8 13.Nf1 Bf8(威脅exd4) 14. Ng3 g6(阻止Nf5) 15.a4(挑戰后翼) c5(中心反擊) 16. d5 c4 17. Bg5 h6 18.Be3 Nc5 19.Qd2 h5(逼着)是主變。

卡爾波夫變着[编辑]

9.h3 Nd7,較為被動的一着。卡爾波夫在1990年西洋棋世界冠軍對抗賽中數次使用,但卡斯帕羅夫在第18局中已獲得明顯優勢。

9...Be6[编辑]
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18.Rg4

9.h3 Be6 10.d4 Bxb3 11.axb3(11.Qxb3) 11...exd4 12.cxd4 d5 13.e5 Ne4 14.Nc3 f5 15.exf6 Bxf6 16.Nxe4 dxe4 17.Rxe4 Qd5 18.Rg4,現在此變着的流行度已大大降低,黑方少兵無補償。

斯梅斯洛夫變着[编辑]

9.h3 h6(ECO C93),容許10...Re8和11...Bf8,但黑方失一先、王翼被削弱,因此黑方通常會採用改良版的扎伊采夫變着。1997年深藍對卡斯帕羅夫第二局卡斯帕羅夫用此變例告負。

其他防禦[编辑]

除了摩菲防禦外,以下是其他可行的走法。

  • 3...g6(斯梅斯洛夫變着)
  • 3...Nd4(伯德防禦)
  • 3...d6(斯坦尼茨防禦)
  • 3...f5!?(施利曼防禦)
  • 3...Bc5(古典防禦)
  • 3...Nf6(柏林防禦)

斯梅斯洛夫變着[编辑]

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5.Bg5

3...g6(ECO C60)。1980年代4.c3 a6!對黑有利,但後來發現4.d4 exd4 5.Bg5(5.c3),令此變着流行度降低。

伯德防禦[编辑]

3...Nd4(ECO C61)。以小心的下子,白方能取得優勢。發揚者亨利·伯德使用它至少25次,取得+9 =3 −13的成績,自此並沒有大師經常採用。

斯坦尼茨防禦[编辑]

3...d6(ECO C62)是較為穩健的一着,但顯得被動和侷促,因此現代斯坦尼茨防禦延遲是較流行的。

施利曼防禦[编辑]

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5...d5

3...f5(ECO C63),藉棄兵向王翼施壓。但此着功效成疑,較少大師採用。通常續着為4.Nc3 fxe4 5.Nxe4 d5(較尖銳)/Nf6。

古典防禦[编辑]

3...Bc5(ECO C64),4.c3(4.0-0) f5(4... Nf6 5.0-0 0-0 6.d4 Bb6較穩健)5.d4。

柏林防禦[编辑]

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8...Kxd8

3...Nf6(ECO C65–67)柏林防禦以堅固和容易致和聞名,為不少大師採用,包括克拉姆尼克、卡斯帕羅夫。之後通常為4.0-0 Nxe4(4...Bc5是進取的一着) 5.d4(5.Re1 Nd6 6.Nxe5) Nd6 6.Bxc6 dxc6 7.dxe5 Nf5 8.Qxd8+ Kxd8,白方有好兵形,黑王暴露於外,白優,但黑也有雙象。此外4.Nc3轉為四馬開局也可以。

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