喬克托語

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喬克托語
Chahta'
母语国家和地区 美國
区域 奧克拉荷馬州東南部與密西西比州東中部,亦通行於路易斯安那州田納西州等地。
母语使用人数 17,890[1](日期不详)
語系
穆斯科吉語族(Muskogean languages)
語言代碼
ISO 639-2 cho
ISO 639-3 cho
本条目包含国际音标符号。部分操作系统浏览器需要特殊字母与符号支持才能正確显示,否则可能显示为乱码、问号、空格等其它符号。

喬克托語(英語:Choctaw;喬克托語:Chahta')是一種穆斯科吉語族(Muskogean languages)的語言,傳統上通行於美國東南部的原住民族群之一喬克托人之間。儘管有人將契卡索語(Chickasaw)列為喬克托語的其中一種方言,但更多的資料指出,應將契卡索和喬克托語給視為彼此相似但不同的語言。[2]

正寫法[编辑]

喬克托語的書寫系統基於英語字母,儘管喬克托語有多種不同的書寫系統,但目最常見的系統為拜印頓系統(Byington (Original)、拜印頓─蘇萬敦系統(Byington/Swanton (Linguistic))和密西西比州喬克托族的現代系統(Modern (Mississippi Choctaw))。

(原始的)拜印頓系統(Byington (Original))[编辑]

The Choctaw "Speller" alphabet as found in the Chahta Holisso Ai Isht Ia Vmmona, 1800s.

(語言學者用的)拜印頓─蘇萬敦系統(Byington/Swanton (Linguistic))[编辑]

在居魯士‧拜印頓所編纂、約翰‧蘇萬頓(John Swanton)所編輯的1909年版的《喬克托語字典》(Choctaw Language Dictionary)中所見的語言學者用的喬克托語字母。

(密西西比州喬克托族的)現代系統(Modern (Mississippi Choctaw))[编辑]

The Modern Choctaw alphabet as used by the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, Present.

(語言學者用的)現代系統變體(Modern (linguistic variant))[编辑]

居魯士‧拜印頓(Cyrus Byington)花了近五十年的時間將聖經給翻譯成喬克托語。他在喬克托族依舊住在密西西比州、「被」移往「印第安領地」(Indian Territory,即後來的奧克拉荷馬州)前,和喬克托族被「移走」後,都和喬克托族人在一起。

許多語言學方面的刊物用的是此處列的那套現代系統的變體,在此變體中,長母音常藉由兩個母音並寫來表示;另在這「語言學者用的」版本中,銳音符表示的是音高重音所在的位置,而非母音的長短。

本文以下討論喬克托語語法的部份使用的系統為語言學者用的現代系統變體。

語法形態[编辑]

語序[编辑]

喬克托語語序如下[3]

腳註[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  • Broadwell, George Aaron. (2006). A Choctaw reference grammar. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Broadwell, George Aaron. (1991). "Speaker and self in Choctaw". International Journal of American Linguistics, 57, 411-425.
  • Byington, Cyrus. (1915). A dictionary of the Choctaw language. J. R. Swanton & H. S. Halbert (Eds.). Bureau of American Ethnology bulletin 46. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. (Reprinted 1973 & 1978).
  • Davies, William. (1986). Choctaw verb agreement and universal grammar." Reidel.
  • Downing, Todd. (1974). Chahta anompa: An introduction to the Choctaw language (3rd ed.). Durant, OK: Choctaw Bilingual Education Program, Southeastern Oklahoma State University.
  • Haag, Marcia, and Willis, Henry. (2001). Choctaw Language & Culture: Chahta Anumpa, University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Haag, Marcia, and Fowler, Loretta. (2001). Chahta Anumpa: A Choctaw Tutorial CD-ROM, University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Heath, Jeffrey. (1977). Choctaw cases. Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistic Society, 3, 204-213.
  • Heath, Jeffrey. (1980). Choctaw suppletive verbs and derivational morphology.
  • Howard, Gregg; Eby, Richard; Jones, Charles G. (1991). Introduction to Choctaw: A primer for learning to speak, read and write the Choctaw language. Fayetteville, AR: VIP Pub.
  • Jacob, Betty. (1980). Choctaw and Chickasaw. Abstract of paper delivered at the 1978 Muskogean conference. International Journal of American Linguistics, 46, 43.
  • Jacob, Betty; Nicklas, Thurston Dale; & Spencer, Betty Lou. (1977). Introduction to Choctaw. Durant, OK: Choctaw Bilingual Education Program, Southeastern Oklahoma State University.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Munro, Pamela. (1987). Some morphological differences between Chickasaw and Choctaw. In P. Munro (Ed.), Muskogean linguistics (pp. 119–133). Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics.
  • Munro, Pamela (Ed.). (1987). Muskogean linguistics. UCLA occasional papers in linguistics (No. 6). Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics.
  • Nicklas, Thurston Dale. (1974). The elements of Choctaw. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor).
  • Nicklas, Thurston Dale. (1975). Choctaw morphophonemics. In J. Crawford (Ed.), Studies in southeastern Indian languages (pp. 237–249). Athens: University of Georgia.
  • Nicklas, Thurston Dale. (1979). Reference grammar of the Choctaw language. Durant, OK: Choctaw Bilingual Education Program, Southeastern Oklahoma State University.
  • Pulte, William. (1975). The position of Chickasaw in Western Muskogean. In J. Crawford (Ed.), Studies in southeastern Indian languages (pp. 251–263). Athens: University of Georgia.
  • Ulrich, Charles H. (1986). Choctaw morphophonology. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles).
  • Ulrich, Charles H. (1987). Choctaw g-grades and y-grades. In P. Munro (Ed.), Muskogean linguistics (pp. 171–178). Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics.
  • Ulrich, Charles H. (1987). Choctaw verb grades and the nature of syllabification. In A. Bosch, B. Need, & E. Schiller (Eds.), Papers from the 23rd annual regional meeting. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
  • Ulrich, Charles H. (1988). The morphophonology of Choctaw verb roots and valence suffixes. In W. Shipley (Ed.), In honor of Mary Haas: From the Haas Festival conference on Native American linguistics (pp. 805–818). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN

外部連結[编辑]