斩首视频

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斩首视频是一种充分展示人质被斩首过程的宣传视频。[1]这种视频在2004年被伊斯兰主义激进分子阿布·穆萨布·扎卡维所推广,并引起了伊斯兰学者的争论。一些伊斯兰学者公开指责这种视频违反了伊斯兰教法;基地组织却不认同这一看法。无论如何,斩首视频在一些伊斯兰恐怖组织中流行开来,例如伊拉克和沙姆伊斯兰国[2]

在这些视频中所展示的斩首通常不表现为“传统”的方法——用迅速地将受害者头部砍下,而是在受害者存活之际用小刀缓慢地被害者的颈部直到头部与身体分离。[3]所以,伊斯兰主义者的“斩首”确切地说应该是“割头”。

早期的这类视频是模糊而简单的,不过根据《芝加哥太阳报》的说法,“(斩首视频)变得越来越复杂,使用动画图形编辑技术显然旨在修饰音频使受害者的最后时刻更加令人不安。”[4]这些视频经常被恐怖分子上传到万维网,然后被各种网络载体所讨论和传播,[5]博客惊悚网站英语Shock sites和传统新闻媒体。一个墨西哥贩毒集团将一段热门的斩首视频发布到了Facebook上,家庭在线安全研究所英语Family Online Safety Institute请求将它删除。[6] 最初Facebook拒绝了这一请求,[7]而后保持了这一决定,[8]后来澄清了他们的政策,表示斩首视频只被允许以让用户“谴责”这类行为的预期态度发布。[9]

已释出的视频[编辑]

2004年以前[编辑]

2004年[编辑]

2005年–2013年[编辑]

2014年[编辑]

2015年[编辑]

骗局[编辑]

一段由本杰明·范德福德、罗比特·马丁和劳里·柯克纳制作的伪造的斩首视频在2004年被美国媒体广泛关注。[41]该视频使用了认主独一圣战组织英语Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad的标志,但是没有该组织的旗帜。[42]它被制作出来用以范德福德的本地竞选。[43]他当时正在谋取马特·冈萨雷斯英语Matt Gonzalez在旧金山监事会(美国中西部及东部各州)英语Board of Supervisors的席位。[44] 范德福德的第二目的是指出主流媒体将会怎样不加批判地接受一部匿名视频。[45]全球伊斯兰媒体阵线英语Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF)声称制作了这部视频,但是在被揭穿后将该视频从他们的网站上删除了。[46]该视频也出现在其他激进分子的网站上,也被一些阿拉伯语电视台节目所引用。[47][48]

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Stannard, Matthew B. Beheading video seen as war tactic. San Francisco Chronicle. May 13, 2004 [November 23, 2010]. 
  2. ^ Bloom, Mia. Even al-Qaeda denounced beheading videos. Why the Islamic State brought them back.. The Washington Post. August 22, 2014 [August 23, 2014]. 
  3. ^ Brecher, Gary. The long, twisted history of beheadings as propaganda. PandoDaily. September 3, 2014. 
  4. ^ Shrader, Katherine Pfleger. Terrorists sense power in beheading videos. Chicago Sun-Times. September 29, 2004 [August 23, 2014] –通过Highbeam Research. 需要付费订阅. 
  5. ^ Palmer, Ewan. James Foley: Police Warn Watching Beheading Video Is A 'Terrorist Offence'. International Business Times. August 20, 2014 [23 August 2014]. 
  6. ^ Karis, Hustad. Facebook Graphic Content Woes: When Are Beheading Videos Okay?. The Christian Science Monitor. October 31, 2013 [August 23, 2014]. (原始内容存档于October 31, 2013) –通过Highbeam Research. 需要付费订阅. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Su, Reissa. Beheaded Woman in Viral Video on Facebook 'Unknown,' Authorities Not Investigating (VIDEO). International Business Times. 4 November 2013 [1 November 2014]. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Grant, Willl. Facebook beheading video: Who was Mexico's Jane Doe?. BBC News Online. 3 November 2013 [1 November 2014]. 
  9. ^ Oreskovic, Alexei. Gory videos OK when posted for users to 'condemn': Facebook. Reuters. October 21, 2013 [August 23, 2014]. 
  10. ^ Reporter Daniel Pearl Is Dead, Killed by His Captors in Pakistan. Wall Street Journal. February 24, 2002 [September 19, 2014]. 
  11. ^ Ansari, Massoud. Daniel Pearl 'refused to be sedated before his throat was cut'. The Telegraph. May 9, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  12. ^ Nichols, Bill. Video shows beheading of American captive. USA Today. May 11, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  13. ^ American hostage beheaded in Saudi Arabia. USA Today. Associated Press. June 16, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  14. ^ Sohn, Jie-ae; Faraj, Caroline. Pentagon: South Korean hostage beheaded. CNN. June 23, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  15. ^ Spinner, Jackie; Faiola, Anthony. S. Korean Is Beheaded in Iraq. Washington Post. June 23, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  16. ^ Video Shows Beheading of Iraq Hostage. Fox News. Associated Press. August 9, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  17. ^ Beheading of 2nd Bulgarian captive confirned. NBC News. Associated Press. August 11, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  18. ^ 'Egyptian spy' beheaded in Iraq. Daily Times. August 11, 2004 [September 18, 2014]. 
  19. ^ American Hostage Beheaded in Iraq; Bush, Kerry Agree to Debate; Can Rather Survive Memogate?. CNN. September 20, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 Faraj, Caroline; al-Hilli, Thaira; Muhy, Bassem; Qasira, Faris; Tawfeeq, Mohammed. Report: Al-Zarqawi group kills American hostage. CNN. September 22, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  21. ^ Walker, Glen. Video Claims to Show Terrorist Group ISIS Beheading U.S. Journalist James Foley. KTLA. August 19, 2014 [September 19, 2014]. 
  22. ^ McCarthy, Rory. Sad, bloody end to Bigley saga. The Guardian. October 8, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  23. ^ Shubert, Atika. Beheaded Japanese to be flown home. CNN. October 31, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  24. ^ Video shows beheading of Japanese hostage. NBC News. Associated Press. November 2, 2004 [September 19, 2014]. 
  25. ^ Shah, Saeed. Polish man beheaded in Pakistani militant video. The Guardian. February 9, 2009 [September 19, 2014]. 
  26. ^ Titterton, Sarah. Horrifying video of militants beheading Polish engineer is released by Pakistani Taliban. Daily Mail. February 9, 2009 [September 19, 2014]. 
  27. ^ Militants blame U.S. for their apparent beheading of U.S. journalist. Los Angeles Times. [August 20, 2014]. 
  28. ^ IS releases journalist beheading video in a message to the US. ABC Online. August 20, 2014 [August 23, 2014]. 
  29. ^ Carter, Chelsea J.; Ashley, Fantz. ISIS video shows beheading of American journalist Steven Sotloff. CNN. September 9, 2014 [September 19, 2014]. 
  30. ^ Callimachi, Rukmini; De Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko. ISIS Video Shows Execution of David Cawthorne Haines, British Aid Worker. New York Times. September 13, 2014 [September 19, 2014]. 
  31. ^ Almasy, Steve; Meilhan, Pierre; Vitagliano, Brian; Mazloumsaki, Sara; Lopez, Elwyn; Fantz, Ashley; Hanna, Jason. French president: Islamic extremists beheaded French hostage. CNN.com. September 24, 2014 [September 24, 2014]. 
  32. ^ Castillo, Mariano. ISIS video claims to show beheading of Alan Henning; American threatened. CNN.com. October 3, 2014 [October 3, 2014]. 
  33. ^ Castillo, Mariano; Brumfield, Ben. Obama calls hostage's beheading by ISIS 'pure evil'. CNN.com. November 16, 2014 [November 16, 2014]. 
  34. ^ Abdul-Rahman Kassig killing is pure evil, says Obama. BBC. November 16, 2014 [November 17, 2014]. 
  35. ^ Wkye, Thomas. Jihadi John Leads Systematic Beheading of Peter Kassig and 18 Syrian Pilots. International Business Times. November 16, 2014 [November 16, 2014]. 
  36. ^ Yoshida, Reiji. Purported Islamic State video shows hostage Goto claiming Yukawa has been executed. Japan Times. 25 January 2015 [2 February 2015]. 
  37. ^ Yoshida, Reiji; Kameda, Masaaki. Goto beheaded by Islamic State militants. Japan Times. February 1, 2015 [February 2, 2015]. 
  38. ^ ISIS video appears to show beheadings of Egyptian Coptic Christians in Libya. CNN.com. February 16, 2015 [February 16, 2015]. 
  39. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D.; Callimachi, Rukmini. Islamic State Video Shows Beheadings of Egyptian Christians in Libya. New York Times. February 15, 2015 [February 16, 2015]. 
  40. ^ Gittens, Hasani; Johnson, M. Alex. U.S. Condemns 'Heinous' Beheading of 21 Egyptian Christians by ISIS. NBC News. February 15, 2015 [February 16, 2015]. 
  41. ^ Guthrie, Julian; Wallace, Bill. Web hoax fools news services. San Francisco Chronicle. August 8, 2004 [October 3, 2014]. 
  42. ^ 'Beheaded hostage' video exposed as hoax. Daily Mail. August 7, 2014 [October 3, 2014]. 
  43. ^ Man fakes own decapitation in video. The Age. August 8, 2004 [October 3, 2014]. 
  44. ^ DiMassa, Cara Mia; Hollis, Robert. Region & State Man Fakes Own Beheading Video. Los Angeles Times. August 8, 2004 [October 3, 2014]. 
  45. ^ American fakes own decapitation in tape. MSNBC. Associated Press. August 7, 2004 [November 23, 2010]. 
  46. ^ American's Iraq 'Beheading' a Hoax. Fox News. Associated Press. August 7, 2004 [October 3, 2014]. 
  47. ^ US man made hoax execution video. BBC. August 7, 2004 [October 3, 2014]. 
  48. ^ Iraq Beheading Video Of US Man A Hoax. Sky News. August 9, 2004 [October 3, 2014]. 

外部链接[编辑]