沙棘

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沙棘
Hippophae rhamnoides-01 (xndr).JPG
科学分类 编辑
界: 植物界 Plantae
演化支 被子植物 Angiosperms
演化支 真双子叶植物 Eudicots
演化支 蔷薇类植物 Rosids
目: 蔷薇目 Rosales
科: 胡頹子科 Elaeagnaceae
属: 沙棘屬 Hippophae
种: 沙棘 H. rhamnoides
二名法
Hippophae rhamnoides
L.

沙棘(學名:Hippophae rhamnoides),或作海沙棘[1],是沙棘屬的一種帶有棘刺的落葉灌木,原產於亞洲和歐洲的溫帶、寒溫帶地區[2]。沙棘可防風固沙,其果實可以食用或用來製作飲料,此外沙棘果在美容和藥用上也有價值。

形態[编辑]

沙棘的棘刺和果實

作為一種落葉灌木,沙棘的高度在二米至四米之間[2],枝幹粗糙、外皮呈黑色[2],葉披針形[3]。在種下三年後開花[1],雌雄異株,通過風來傳播種子[2]

單個果實重量在270至480毫克之間,富含維生素C、E、B12[4]和類胡蘿蔔素、類黃酮和脂肪酸[5]

共生菌[编辑]

沙棘的根系十分發達,而且當植株成長至一至兩年,其根會開始長出含弗兰克氏菌英语FrankiaFrankia英语Frankia,屬放線菌門)的固氮共生菌[6][7][8]。因著這層關係,種植有沙棘的土壤都含豐富氮肥。共生菌的固氮活動速率並不固定,會受外間天氣或額外氮肥的施與而影響[6][9]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Bernáth, J.; Földesi, D. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.): A Promising New Medicinal and Food Crop. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants. 1992, 1 (1–2): 27–35. doi:10.1300/J044v01n01_04. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Li, TSC; Schroeder, WR. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.): A Multipurpose Plant (PDF). HortTechnology. 1996, 6 (4): 370–380 [2018-03-31]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2012-08-13). 
  3. ^ Synge, PM. Dictionary of gardening: A practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1974. ISBN 978-0198691068. 
  4. ^ Stobdan, T; Chaurasia, OP; Korekar, G; Mundra, S; Ali, Z; Yadav, A; Singh, SB. Attributes of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) to Meet Nutritional Requirements in High Altitude. Defence Science Journal. 2010, 60 (2): 226–230. doi:10.14429/dsj.60.344. 
  5. ^ Bal, LM; Meda, V; Naik, SN; Satya, S. Sea buckthorn berries: A potential source of valuable nutrients for nutraceuticals and cosmoceuticals. Food Research International. 2011, 44 (7): 1718–1727. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2011.03.002. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Stewart, WDP; Pearson, MC. Nodulation and nitrogen-fixation by Hippophae rhamnoides L. in the field. Plant Soil. 1967, 26: 348–360. doi:10.1007/bf01880184. 
  7. ^ Gatner, EMS; Gardener, IC. Observations on the fine structure of the root nodule endophye of Hippophae rhamnoides L.. Arch. Mikrobiol. 1970, 70: 183–196. doi:10.1007/bf00407709. 
  8. ^ Lu, R. Sea buckthorn: A multipurpose plant species for fragile mountains (PDF). ICIMOD Occasional Paper No. 20 (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Katmandu, Nepal). 1992 [2018-03-31]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2017-07-30).  Index page from publisher is here.
  9. ^ Montpetit, D; Lalonde, M. In vitro propagation and subsequent nodulation of the actinorhizal Hippophae rhamnoides L.. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 1988, 15 (3): 189–200. doi:10.1007/bf00033643. 

外部連結[编辑]