物种歧视

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物种歧视论Speciesism),最早出现于英国心理學家理察‧莱德(Richard D. Ryder)1975年的作品《科学的受害者》,是指人类对非人类存有的一种偏见,主张人类的利益凌駕於一切同樣生活在地球上的其他物种的利益之上。这是一种从伦理、道德层面到具体行为方式上对其他物种的深入侵害。物种歧视指的是针对某一个群体仅仅因物种归属不同而产生的一系列价值、权利差别判断和特殊对待的现象。这个词汇主要使用于动物权利保护者的观点中。他们认为物种歧视与性别歧视种族歧视相似,其核心都是根据个体的群体归属和与道德无关的生理因素决定对其个体的待遇的。这个论点主张物种归属没有道德价值。[1]

物種歧視这个词在用法上多种多样[2],在一般情况下是指“人类物种歧视主义” (人类至上主义),即把非人类的动物排除於人類的道德範圍以外,視之為可隨意處置的對象。[3]它也可以更广泛地指一种仅通过物种差别而决定个体价值的思想:例如人類會因為某些物種長得不夠可愛而認定牠們為可隨意處置甚至虐殺對象,而某些物種卻因為可愛的外表──如貓和狗──而受到法律上的特殊保護。而由这个思想引申出的“人类-大猩猩物种歧视主义”則是指:人类因为跟大猩猩的相似性而更倾向于保护大猩猩的权利(相较于保护猫狗的权利)。[4]

参见[编辑]

笔记[编辑]

  1. ^ Ryder, Richard D. (2009) [1998]. "Speciesism," in Marc Bekoff (ed.), Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood.
  2. ^ That it is used inconsistently, see Zamir (2009), p. 3
  3. ^ Cavalieri, Paola (2001). The Animal Question : Why Nonhuman Animals Deserve Human Rights, Oxford University Press.| name="Cavalieri2001p70"
  4. ^ Waldau (2001), pp. 5, 23–29

参考资料[编辑]

Barlian, Y. Michael (2004). "Speciesism as a precondition to justice", Politics and the Life Sciences, 23(1), March, pp. 22–33.
Blackburn, Simon (1994). "Speciesism," Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, Oxford University Press.
Cavalieri, Paola (2001). The Animal Question : Why Nonhuman Animals Deserve Human Rights, Oxford University Press.
Cohen, Carl (1986). "The case for the use of animals in biomedical research", The New England Journal of Medicine, 315(14), pp. 865–869.
Cohen, Carl and Regan, Tom (2001). The Animal Rights Debate, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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Dawkins, Richard (1993). "Gaps in the mind", in Paola Cavalieri and Peter Singer (eds.), The Great Ape Project, St. Martin's Griffin, 1993, pp. 81–87.
Dawkins, Richard (1996) [1986]. The Blind Watchmaker, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Dawkins, Richard (2007). "Richard Dawkins – Science and the New Atheism", 7 December.
Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (2003). Ideas that changed the world, Dorling Kindersley.
Frey, R. G. (1983). Rights, Killing and Suffering, Blackwell.
Graft, D. (1997). "Against strong speciesism," Journal of Applied Philosophy, 14(2).
Gray, J. A. (1990). "In defense of speciesism," Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13(1).
Holden, Andrew (2003). "In Need of New Environmental Ethics for Tourism?", Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1), pp. 94–108.
Karcher, Karin (2009) [1998]. "Great Ape Project," in Marc Bekoff (ed.), Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare, Greenwood.
Lafollette, Hugh and Shanks, Niall (1996). "The Origin of Speciesism", Philosophy, 71(275), January, pp. 41–61 (courtesy link).
Noddings, Nel (1991). "Comment on Donovan's 'Animal Rights and Feminist Theory'", Signs, 16(2), Winter, pp. 418–422.
Peikoff, Leonard (1991). Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand, Dutton.
Ryder, Richard D. (1971). "Experiments on Animals," in Stanley and Roslind Godlovitch and John Harris (eds.), Animals, Men and Morals, Victor Gollanz, pp. 41–82.
Ryder, Richard D. (2000) [1989]. Animal Revolution, Berg.
Ryder, Richard D. (2009) [1998]. "Speciesism," in Marc Bekoff (ed.), Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood.
Ryder, Richard D. (2010). "Speciesism Again: The Original Leaflet", Critical Society, Spring, 2.
Rorty, Richard (1998) [1993]. "Human rights, rationality and sentimentality," in Truth and Progress, Cambridge University Press.
Scully, Matthew (2003). Dominion: The Power of Man, the Suffering of Animals, and the Call to Mercy, St. Martin's Griffin.
Singer, Peter (1990) [1975]. Animal Liberation, New York Review/Random House.
Staudenmaier, Peter (2003). "Ambiguities of Animal Rights", Communalism: International Journal for a Rational Society, March, 5.
Sztybel, David (2006). "Can the Treatment of Animals Be Compared to the Holocaust?", Ethics & the Environment, 11(1), Spring, pp. 97–132.
Tuohey, John (1992). "Fifteen years after Animal Liberation: Has the animal rights movement achieved philosophical legitimacy?", Journal of Medical Humanities, 13(2), June, pp. 79–89.
Vardy, P. and Grosch, P. (1999). The Puzzle of Ethics, Harper Collins.
Waldau, Paul (2001). The Specter of Speciesism: Buddhist and Christian Views of Animals, Oxford University Press.
Wise, Steven M. (2004). "Animal Rights, One Step at a Time," in Cass Sunstein and Martha Nussbaum eds.), Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions, Oxford University Press.
Zamir, Tzachi (2009). Ethics and the Beast: A Speciesist Argument for Animal Liberation. Princeton University Press.

Further reading[编辑]

BBC (2006). "The ethics of speciesism".
Dunayer, Joan (2004). Speciesism, Ryce Publishing.
Geoghegan, Tom (2007). "Should apes have human rights?", BBC News Magazine, 29 March.
Nibert, David (2003). "Humans and other animals: sociology's moral and intellectual challenge", International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 23(3), pp. 4–25.
Ryder, Richard D. (1975). Victims of Science: The Use of Animals in Research, Davis-Poynter.
Horta, Oscar (2010). "What Is Speciesism", Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp. 243–266.
Kaufman, Frederik (1998). "Speciesism and the Argument from Misfortune" Journal of Applied Philosophy, 15(2), pp. 155–163.
Perry, Constance K. (2001). "A Compassionate Autonomy Alternative to Speciesism," Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 22(3), June 2001.
Discussion between Peter Singer and Richard Dawkins
Anti-speciesism
Les Cahiers Antispécistes (in French)
Liberazioni (in Italian)