班公错

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班公错
Pangong lake.jpg
位置  中国西藏自治区阿里地區日土县
 印度印控克什米尔拉达克
坐标 33°44′53.0″N 79°1′14.5″E / 33.748056°N 79.020694°E / 33.748056; 79.020694坐标33°44′53.0″N 79°1′14.5″E / 33.748056°N 79.020694°E / 33.748056; 79.020694
湖泊类型 双季对流混合型湖泊(东部)[1]
冷单次混合型湖泊(西部)[2]
流经国家 中国、印度
最大长度 134km
最大宽度 5km
表面积 600~700km²
表面海拔 4250m

班公错拉达克语:Pangong Tso),藏语哥木克哥那喇令错,或错木昂拉仁波藏语མཚོ་མོ་ངང་ལྷ་རིང་པོ།威利mtsho mo ngang lha ring poTHLTsomo Nganglha Ringpo),是青藏高原西部的一座湖泊,位于西藏克什米尔边境,中国印度对该湖归属有争议,现中国控制该湖东部约三分之二,印度控制西部约三分之一。

班公错属构造性湖泊,东西狭长,约延伸143公里,南北最宽处5公里,总面积604平方公里。该湖湖面平均海拔4241米,属内流湖,流域面积28714平方公里。由三个狭长形小湖组成,其间有沟通水道。湖最深处约57米。湖水清澈,透明度3至4米。每年结冰期6个月。该湖东部水质为淡水,中西部为咸水。湖中盛产裂腹鱼。

名称[编辑]

历史上,该湖被视为五个由河道链接的小湖泊,班公错这个名字只指最西边一半在印度的其五之一。 从西向东这些湖泊的名称分别为:[1][2][3]Pangong Tso(班公错)、Tso NyakRum Tso双湖(胡惟德译:襍尔木湖[3])、Nyak Tso(胡惟德译:諾和湖[3])。整个湖群被藏语称为前述的錯木昂拉仁波

班公错来自印度的拉达克语[來源請求],意思是“高草原湖”[4]。錯木昂拉仁波是藏语,各资料有相异但类似的解释--明媚而狭长的湖[5]、长脖天鹅湖[6]、长颈仙鹤湖[7]

班公错清朝译潘光湖,错木昂拉仁波清朝译索莫南列伊爾湖[8]

图集[编辑]

班公错

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 斯文·赫定. Scientific Results of a Journey in Central Asia 1899-1902: Central and West Tibet. Lithographic institute of the General staff of the Swedish army. 1907: 521. From Noh to Bal Rawling followed the same route that I did along the northern shore of the Tso-ngombo, which he calls the Tso Mo Gualari, dividing it into the sections ›Tso Nyak, the twin lakes Rum Tso and Nyak Tso.› He says that it consists of a string of five lakes 120 m. in length, the four most southern of which are fresh, and Pangong, the most northerly, salt. They are joined together by channels about 60 feet in width and 15 feet deep, the current running at nearly 1½ mile an hour. 
  2. ^ Routes in Asia: Routes in the territories of the Maharaja of Jummoo and Kashmir, and adjacent countries. Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. 1878: 31–33. Only the lower lake (the Pangong Tso proper) lies in Ladak, the middle (Tso Nyak) and upper lakes being in Rudok territory. ... The waters of the western end are much more salt than those of the eastern end near Ot. in the stream connecting the Pangong Tso with Nyak Tso the water becomes drinkable, and rich grass is found on the banks. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 胡惟德. 西藏全圖. 国会图书馆 (美国). 1904 [2020-01-19]. 
  4. ^ Pangong Lake. 拉达克政府. 2019-10-29 [9 January 2020]. Pangong Lake, one of the most famous lakes in Leh Ladakh, derives its name from the Tibetan word, “Pangong Tso”, which means “high grassland lake”. 
  5. ^ 黃子燕. 中外旅遊休閒自然地理. 崧燁文化事業有限公司. 1 May 2018: 136. ISBN 978-957-563-112-3. 位於中國和喀什米爾邊境的班公錯,藏語意為「明媚而狹長的湖」 
  6. ^ 行走的尼尔. 西藏有处奇特圣湖,一面属中国干净碧绿,一面属印度连鱼也不生长. 新浪网. 2019年10月05日 [19 January 2020]. 藏语的名字是“措木昂拉仁波错”,它的意思是“长脖子天鹅” 
  7. ^ 安才旦. 西藏旅游. 五洲传播出版社. 2002: 24. ISBN 978-7-80113-915-3. 藏语称其为“措木昂拉仁波错” ,意为“长颈仙鹤湖”。 
  8. ^ 洪鈞. 中俄交界全图. 國會圖書館 (美國). 1890 [2020-01-19]. 
  1. 王明达, 侯居峙, 类延斌. 青藏高原不同类型湖泊温度季节性变化及其分类. 科学通报, 2014, 59(31): 3095-3103
  2. Bhat, F., et al., Ecology and biodiversity in Pangong Tso (lake) and its inlet stream in Ladakh, India. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 2011. 3(10): p. 501-511