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電腦裝置頻寬列表

维基百科,自由的百科全书
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這是一個電腦裝置頻寬列表,列出一般電腦裝置的信道容量,即轉輸數據的 (理論上) 最高轉送速度,以千位元每秒(kbit/s/kbps)、百萬位元每秒(Mbit/s/Mbps)、十億位元每秒(Gbit/s/Gbps)或兆位元每秒(Tbit/s/Tbps)表示。以下每按裝置的功能分組,按信道容量由小至大排列。

為方便非技術人員比較頻寬的大小,每類頻寬都有一個公用單位,例如電話頻寬為 1.2 kbit/s,其中一種舊式數據機的頻寬為 56 kbit/s。使用位元每秒 (bit/sec) 或位元組每秒 (Byte/sec) 則視乎一般人慣用哪一個。慣用的單位在列表中以粗體表示。一般來說,并行通訊介面用位元每秒 (bit/sec),串行通訊則用位元組每秒 (Byte/sec)。至於類似數據機的裝置中,基於用作分隔每一位元組 (Byte) 的 和 Stop bit,一位元組可能含有超過八個位元 (bit),以下的列表已經有考慮這一點。而如果有像乙太網路SATA,與PCI Express等使用到調變技術的通道,列出的頻寬速度則是表示調變後的訊號速度。

很多以下的數據只是例出理論上最快的傳送速度,有很多的因素都會令傳送速度減低。同時以下數據只表示半雙工傳送速度,可能與生產商聲稱的全雙工度有所出入。

附註:以下所有數據單位以公制 (以10為基數) 表示:

  • 1 Bytes = 8 bits
  • 1 kbit = 1,000 bits
  • 1 kB = 1,000 Bytes
  • 1 MB = 1,000,000 Bytes
  • 1 GB = 1,000,000,000 Bytes
  • 1 TB = 1,000,000,000,000 Bytes
  • 1 PB = 1,000,000,000,000,000 Bytes
  • 1 EB = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 Bytes
  • 1 ZB = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Bytes
  • 1 YB = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Bytes

如此類推
(詳情請參閱二進制乘數詞頭)

連線 位元 位元組

電傳列印機或是聽障人使用的通訊設備[编辑]

名稱 最高速度 推出年分
TTY (V.18) 45.4545 bit/s 6 characters/s[1]
TTY (V.18) 50 bit/s 6.6 characters/s
NTSC Line 21 Closed Captioning 1 kbit/s ~100 characters/s

數據機/家用網路連線[编辑]

需要注意的是這些數據是理論上能提供的最高速度,而實際上會因為像雜訊干擾等因素而會比較慢一些。[2]如果有出現兩個頻寬,前者表示下載頻寬,後者則是表示上傳頻寬。 需要注意的是這些資料是理論上能提供的最高速度,而實際上會因為像雜訊干擾等因素而會比較慢一些。如果有出現兩個頻寬,前者表示下載頻寬,後者則是表示上傳頻寬。

窄頻[编辑]

名稱 最高速率(位元) 最高速率(位元組/s) 推出年分
摩斯電碼 0.021 kbit/s[3] 4 characters per second (~40 wpm)[4] 1844
110 鮑率數據機 (Bell 101) 0.11 kbit/s 0.010 kB/s (~10 cps)[5] 1959
300 數據機 (300 鮑率; Bell 103 or V.21) 0.3 kbit/s 0.03 kB/s (~30 cps)[5] 1962[6]
1200 數據機 (600 鮑率; Bell 212A or V.22) 1.2 kbit/s 0.12 kB/s (~120 cps)[5] 1976
1200/75 數據機 (600 鮑率; V.23) 1.2/0.075kbit/s 0.12/0.0075kB/s (~120 cps)[5] 1988[7]
2400 數據機 (600 鮑率; V.22bis) 2.4 kbit/s 0.3 kB/s[5] 1988[7]
4800 數據機 (1600 鮑率; V.27ter) 4.8 kbit/s 0.6 kB/s[5] 1988[7]
9600 數據機 (2400 鮑率; V.32) 9.6 kbit/s 1.2 kB/s[5] 1989[6]
14.4 數據機 (2400 鮑率; V.32bis) 14.4 kbit/s 1.8 kB/s[5] 1991[6]
28.8 數據機 (3200 鮑率; V.34-1994) 28.8 kbit/s 3.6 kB/s[5] 1994
33.6 數據機 (3429 鮑率; V.34-1996/98) 33.6 kbit/s 4.2 kB/s[5] 1996[7]
56k 數據機 (8000/3429 鮑率; V.90) 56.0/33.6kbit/s[8] 7/4.2kB/s 1998
56k 數據機 (8000/8000 鮑率; V.92) 56.0/48.0kbit/s[8] 7/6kB/s 2001
可變硬體壓縮 (variable; V.92/V.44) 56.0–320.0kbit/s[8] 7–40kB/s 2000[7]
ISP-side text/image compression (variable) 56.0–1000.0kbit/s 7–125kB/s 1998[7]
ISDN 基本速率介面 (單/雙 通道) 64/128kbit/s[9] 8/16kB/s 1986[10]
IDSL (dual ISDN + 16 kbit/s data channels) 144 kbit/s 18 kB/s 2000[11]

寬頻[编辑]

名稱 最高速率(位元) 最高速率(位元組) 推出年分
HDSL ITU G.991.1 a.k.a. DS1 1,544 kbit/s 193 kB/s 1998[12]
MSDSL 2,000 kbit/s 250 kB/s  ?
SDSL 2,320 kbit/s 290 kB/s  ?
SHDSL ITU G.991.2 5,690 kbit/s 711 kB/s 2001
ADSL (G.lite) 1536/512kbit/s 192/64kB/s 1998
ADSL (G.dmt) ITU G.992.1 8192/1024kbit/s 1024/128kB/s 1999
ADSL2 ITU G.992.3 12288/1440kbit/s 1536/180kB/s 2002
ADSL2+ ITU G.992.5 24576/3584kbit/s 3072/448kB/s 2003
DOCSIS v1.0[13] (cable modem) 38/9Mbit/s 4750/1125kB/s 1997
DOCSIS v2.0[14] (cable modem) 38/27Mbit/s 4750/3375kB/s 2001
VDSL ITU G.993.1 52 Mbit/s 7,000 kB/s 2001
VDSL2 ITU G.993.2 100 Mbit/s 12,500 kB/s 2006
VDSL2 ITU G.993.2 Amendment 1 (11/15) 300 Mbit/s 12,500 kB/s 2015
G.fast ITU G.9700 1,000 Mbit/s 125,000 kB/s 2014
DOCSIS v3.0[15] (cable modem) 160/120Mbit/s 20000/15000kB/s (~200,000,000 wpm) 2006
Uni-DSL 200 Mbit/s 25,000 kB/s 2006
BPON (G.983) fiber optic service 622/155Mbit/s 77700/19300kB/s 2005[16]
EPON (802.3ah) fiber optic service 1000/1000Mbit/s 125000/125000kB/s 2008
DOCSIS v3.1[17] (cable modem) 10000/150Mbit/s 1250000/18750kB/s 2015
GPON (G.984) 光纖服務 2488/1244Mbit/s 311000/155500kB/s (~3 billion+ wpm) 2008[18]
10G-PON (G.987) 光纖服務 10000/2500Mbit/s 1250000/312500kB/s (~12 billion+ wpm) 2012[19]

移動式電話介面[编辑]

這些數據是理論上能提供的最高速度,而實際上會因為像雜訊干擾等因素而會比較慢一些。如果有出現兩個頻寬,前者表示下載頻寬,後者則是表示上傳頻寬。

名稱 下載速率(位元/位元組) 上傳速率(位元/位元組) 推出年分
GSM CSD (2G) 14.4 kbit/s[20] 1.8 kB/s 14.4 kbit/s 1.8 kB/s
HSCSD 57.6 kbit/s 5.4 kB/s 14.4 kbit/s 1.8 kB/s
GPRS (2.5G) 57.6 kbit/s 7.2 kB/s 28.8 kbit/s 3.6 kB/s
WiDEN 100 kbit/s 12.5 kB/s 100 kbit/s 12.5 kB/s
CDMA2000 1×RTT 153 kbit/s 18 kB/s 153 kbit/s 18 kB/s
EDGE (2.75G) (type 1 MS) 236.8 kbit/s 29.6 kB/s 236.8 kbit/s 29.6 kB/s 2002
UMTS 3G 384 kbit/s 48 kB/s 384 kbit/s 48 kB/s
EDGE (type 2 MS) 473.6 kbit/s 59.2 kB/s 473.6 kbit/s 59.2 kB/s
EDGE Evolution (type 1 MS) 1,184 kbit/s 148 kB/s 474 kbit/s 59 kB/s
EDGE Evolution (type 2 MS) 1,894 kbit/s 237 kB/s 947 kbit/s 118 kB/s
1×EV-DO rev. 0 2,457 kbit/s 307.2 kB/s 153 kbit/s 19 kB/s
1×EV-DO rev. A 3.1 Mbit/s 397 kB/s 1.8 Mbit/s 230 kB/s
1×EV-DO rev. B 14.7 Mbit/s 1,837 kB/s 5.4 Mbit/s 675 kB/s
HSPA (3.5G) 13.98 Mbit/s 1,706 kB/s 5.760 Mbit/s 720 kB/s
4×EV-DO Enhancements (2×2 多輸入多輸出) 34.4 Mbit/s 4.3 MB/s 12.4 Mbit/s 1.55 MB/s
HSPA+ (2×2 多輸入多輸出) 42 Mbit/s 5.25 MB/s 11.5 Mbit/s 1.437 MB/s
15×EV-DO rev. B 73.5 Mbit/s 9.2 MB/s 27 Mbit/s 3.375 MB/s
UMB (2×2 多輸入多輸出) 140 Mbit/s 17.5 MB/s 34 Mbit/s 4.250 MB/s
LTE (2×2 多輸入多輸出) 173 Mbit/s 21.625 MB/s 58 Mbit/s 7.25 MB/s 2004
UMB (4×4 多輸入多輸出) 280 Mbit/s 35 MB/s 68 Mbit/s 8.5 MB/s
EV-DO rev. C 280 Mbit/s 35 MB/s 75 Mbit/s 9 MB/s
LTE (4×4 多輸入多輸出) 326 Mbit/s 40.750 MB/s 86 Mbit/s 10.750 MB/s

廣域網路[编辑]

這些數據是理論上能提供的最高速度,而實際上會因為像雜訊干擾等因素而會比較慢一些。如果有出現兩個頻寬,前者表示下載頻寬,後者則是表示上傳頻寬。

名稱 傳輸速率(位元/位元組) 推出年份
DS0 0.064 Mbit/s 0.008 MB/s
G.lite (a.k.a. ADSL Lite) 1.536/0.512Mbit/s 0.192/0.064MB/s
DS1 / T1 (and ISDN Primary Rate Interface) 1.544 Mbit/s 0.192 MB/s
E1 (and ISDN Primary Rate Interface) 2.048 Mbit/s 0.256 MB/s
G.SHDSL 2.304 Mbit/s 0.288 MB/s
LR-VDSL2 (4 to 5 km [long-]range) (symmetry optional) 4 Mbit/s 0.512 MB/s
SDSL[21] 2.32 Mbit/s 0.29 MB/s
T2 6.312 Mbit/s 0.789 MB/s
ADSL[22] 8.0/1.024Mbit/s 1.0/0.128MB/s
E2 8.448 Mbit/s 1.056 MB/s
ADSL2 12/3.5Mbit/s 1.5/0.448MB/s
Satellite Internet[23] 16/1Mbit/s 2.0/0.128MB/s
ADSL2+ 24/3.5Mbit/s 3.0/0.448MB/s
E3 34.368 Mbit/s 4.296 MB/s
DOCSIS v1.0 (cable modem)[13] 38/9Mbit/s 4.75/1.125MB/s
DOCSIS v2.0 (cable modem)[14] 38/27Mbit/s 4.75/3.37MB/s
DS3 / T3 ('45 Meg') 44.736 Mbit/s 5.5925 MB/s
STS-1 / OC-1 / STM-0 51.84 Mbit/s 6.48 MB/s
VDSL (symmetry optional) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
OC-3 / STM-1 155.52 Mbit/s 19.44 MB/s
DOCSIS v3.0 (cable modem)[15] 222.48/171.52Mbit/s 27.81/21.44MB/s
VDSL2 (symmetry optional) 250 Mbit/s 31.25 MB/s
T4 274.176 Mbit/s 34.272 MB/s
T5 400.352 Mbit/s 50.044 MB/s
OC-9 466.56 Mbit/s 58.32 MB/s
OC-12 / STM-4 622.08 Mbit/s 77.76 MB/s
OC-18 933.12 Mbit/s 116.64 MB/s
OC-24 1.244 Gbit/s 155.5 MB/s
OC-36 1.900 Gbit/s 237.5 MB/s
OC-48 / STM-16 2.488 Gbit/s 311.04 MB/s
OC-96 4.976 Gbit/s 622.08 MB/s
OC-192 / STM-64 9.953 Gbit/s 1.244125 GB/s
10 Gigabit Ethernet WAN PHY 9.953 Gbit/s 1.244125 GB/s
10 Gigabit Ethernet LAN PHY 10.000 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
OC-256 13.271 Gbit/s 1.659 GB/s
OC-768 / STM-256 39.813 Gbit/s 4.976 GB/s
OC-1536 / STM-512 79.626 Gbit/s 9.953 GB/s
OC-3072 / STM-1024 159.252 Gbit/s 19.907GB/s

區域網路[编辑]

由於檔頭與其他因素,承載資料的吞吐量是小於實際資料傳輸量,所以不要將速度與實際資料傳輸率混為一談。「通常實際速度會因為當前流量而降至 1/3-2/3 的速度。而且,如果發生任何傳輸問題而使得實體層發生重新傳送的狀況時,吞吐量也會因而受影響。」[24]

名稱 最高速率(位元/位元組) 推出年分
LocalTalk 230 kbit/s 28.8 kB/s 1988
Econet 800 kbit/s 100 kB/s 1981
Omninet 1 Mbit/s 125 kB/s
IBM PC Network 2 Mbit/s 250 kB/s 1985
ARCNET (Standard) 2.5 Mbit/s 312.5 kB/s 1977
Chaosnet (Original) 4 Mbit/s 3.0 Mbit/s 1971
Token Ring (Original) 4 Mbit/s 500 kB/s 1985
Ethernet (10BASE-X) 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s 1980 (1985 IEEE Standard)
Token Ring (Later) 16 Mbit/s 2 MB/s 1989
ARCnet Plus 20 Mbit/s 2.5 MB/s 1992
TNCS 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s 1993?
100VG 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s 1995
Token Ring IEEE 802.5t 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Fast Ethernet (100BASE-X) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s 1995
FDDI 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
MoCA 1.0[25] 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
MoCA 1.1[25] 175 Mbit/s 21.875 MB/s
HomePlug AV 200 Mbit/s 25 MB/s 2005
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 400[26][27] 400 Mbit/s 50 MB/s 1995
HIPPI 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
IEEE 1901 1,000 Mbit/s 125 MB/s 2010
Token Ring IEEE 802.5v 1 Gbit/s 125 MB/s 2001
Gigabit Ethernet (1000BASE-X) 1 Gbit/s 125 MB/s 1998
Reflective memory or RFM2 (1.25 µs latency) 2 Gbit/s 235 MB/s 1970
Myrinet 2000 2 Gbit/s 250 MB/s
Infiniband SDR 1×[28] 2 Gbit/s 250 MB/s 2001
RapidIO Gen1 1× 2.5 Gbit/s 312.5 MB/s 2000
Quadrics QsNetI 3.6 Gbit/s 450 MB/s
Infiniband DDR 1×[28] 4 Gbit/s 500 MB/s 2005
RapidIO Gen2 1× 5 Gbit/s 625 MB/s 2008
Infiniband QDR 1×[28] 8 Gbit/s 1 GB/s 2007
Infiniband SDR 4×[28] 8 Gbit/s 1 GB/s
Quadrics QsNetII 8 Gbit/s 1 GB/s
RapidIO Gen1 4x 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 2x 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s 2008
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GBASE-X) 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s 2002-2006
Myri 10G 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
Infiniband FDR-10 1×[29] 10.31 Gbit/s 1.29 GB/s
NUMAlink 3 12.8 Gbit/s 1.6 GB/s 2004
Infiniband FDR 1×[29] 13.64 Gbit/s 1.7 GB/s 2011
Infiniband DDR 4×[28] 16 Gbit/s 2 GB/s 2005
RapidIO Gen2 4x 20 Gbit/s 2.5 GB/s 2008
Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) Dual Channel SCI, x8 PCIe 20 Gbit/s 2.5 GB/s
Infiniband SDR 12×[28] 24 Gbit/s 3 GB/s
RapidIO Gen4 1× 24.63 Gbit/s 3.079 GB/s 2016
Infiniband EDR 1×[29] 25 Gbit/s 3.125 GB/s 2014
25 Gigabit Ethernet (25GBASE) 25 Gbit/s 3.125 GB/s 2016
NUMAlink 4 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s 2004
Infiniband QDR 4×[28] 32 Gbit/s 4 GB/s 2007
RapidIO Gen2 8x 40 Gbit/s 5 GB/s 2008
40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GBASE-X) 4× 40 Gbit/s 5 GB/s 2010
Infiniband FDR-10 4×[29] 41.25 Gbit/s 5.16 GB/s
Infiniband DDR 12×[28] 48 Gbit/s 6 GB/s 2005
NUMAlink 6 53.6 Gbit/s 6.7 GB/s 2012
Infiniband FDR 4×[29] 54.54 Gbit/s 6.82 GB/s 2011
RapidIO Gen2 16× 80 Gbit/s 10 GB/s 2008
Infiniband QDR 12×[28] 96 Gbit/s 12 GB/s 2007
Infiniband EDR 4×[29] 100 Gbit/s 12.5 GB/s 2014
100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GBASE-X) 10×/4× 100 Gbit/s 12.5 GB/s 2010/2018
Omni-Path 100 Gbit/s 12.5 GB/s 2015
Infiniband FDR-10 12×[29] 123.75 Gbit/s 15.47 GB/s
NUMAlink 7 159.52 Gbit/s 19.94 GB/s 2014
Infiniband FDR 12×[29] 163.64 Gbit/s 20.45 GB/s 2011
Infiniband EDR 12×[29] 300 Gbit/s 37.5 GB/s 2014

無線網路[编辑]

802.11 都是半雙工形式的網路。在存取點模式,所有的承載資料都要經過 AP。當兩台電腦要用同一台 AP 相互通訊時,所有的承載資料都要二次傳輸:第一次從發出者到 AP,再來從 AP 發送到接收者,這將使實際頻寬折半。

標準 最高速率(位元/位元組) 推出年分
Classic WaveLAN 2 Mbit/s 250 kB/s 1988
IEEE 802.11 2 Mbit/s 250 kB/s 1997
RONJA (full duplex) 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s 2001
IEEE 802.11a 54 Mbit/s 6.75 MB/s 1999
IEEE 802.11b 11 Mbit/s 1.375 MB/s 1999
IEEE 802.11g 54 Mbit/s 6.75 MB/s 2003
IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) 70 Mbit/s 8.75 MB/s 2004
IEEE 802.11g with Super G by Atheros 108 Mbit/s 13.5 MB/s 2003
IEEE 802.11g with 125 High Speed Mode by Broadcom 125 Mbit/s 15.625 MB/s 2003
IEEE 802.11g with Nitro by Conexant 140 Mbit/s 17.5 MB/s 2003
IEEE 802.11n 600 Mbit/s 75 MB/s 2009
IEEE 802.11ac (maximum theoretical speed) 6.8–6.93Gbit/s 850–866.25MB/s 2012
IEEE 802.11ad (maximum theoretical speed) 7.14–7.2Gbit/s 892.5–900MB/s 2011

無線裝置連線[编辑]

名稱 最高速率(位元/位元組) 推出年分
ANT 20 kbit/s 2.5 kB/s
IrDA-Control 72 kbit/s 9 kB/s
IrDA-SIR 115.2 kbit/s 14 kB/s
802.15.4 (2.4 GHz) 250 kbit/s 31.25 kB/s
Bluetooth 1.1 1 Mbit/s 125 kB/s 2002
Bluetooth 2.0+EDR 3 Mbit/s 375 kB/s 2004
IrDA-FIR 4 Mbit/s 500 kB/s
IrDA-VFIR 16 Mbit/s 2 MB/s
Bluetooth 3.0 25 Mbit/s 3.125 MB/s 2009
Bluetooth 4.0 25 Mbit/s 3.125 MB/s 2010
Bluetooth 4.1  Mbit/s  MB/s 2013
Bluetooth 4.2  Mbit/s  MB/s 2014
Bluetooth 5.0 50 Mbit/s 6.25 MB/s 2016
IrDA-UFIR 96 Mbit/s 12 MB/s
WUSB-UWB 480 Mbit/s 60 MB/s
IrDA-Giga-IR 1,024 Mbit/s 128 MB/s

電腦匯流排[编辑]

名稱 傳輸速率(位元/位元組) 推出年分
I²C 3.4 Mbit/s 425 kB/s 1992
Apple II series (incl. Apple IIGS) 8-bit/1 MHz 8 Mbit/s 1 MB/s[30][31] 1977
SS-50 Bus 8-bit/1(?) MHz 8 Mbit/s 1 MB/s
STD-80 8-bit/8 MHz 16 Mbit/s 2 MB/s
ISA 8-Bit/4.77 MHz 19.1 Mbit/s 2.39 MB/s 1981
STD-80 16-bit/8 MHz 32 Mbit/s 4 MB/s
Zorro II 16-bit/7.14 MHz[32] 42.4 Mbit/s 5.3 MB/s 1986
ISA 16-Bit/8.33 MHz 66.7 Mbit/s 8.33 MB/s 1984
Europe Card Bus 8-Bit/10 MHz 66.7 Mbit/s 8.33 MB/s 1977
S-100 bus 8-bit/10 MHz 80 Mbit/s 10 MB/s 1976
Serial Peripheral Interface Bus (Up to 100 MHz) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s 1989
Low Pin Count 125 Mbit/s 15.63 MB/s [x] 2002
STEbus 8-Bit/16 MHz 128 Mbit/s 16 MB/s 1987
C-Bus 16-bit/10 MHz 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s[33] 1982
HP Precision Bus 184 Mbit/s 23 MB/s
STD-32 32-bit/8 MHz 256 Mbit/s 32 MB/s[34]
NESA 32-bit/8 MHz 256 Mbit/s 32 MB/s
EISA 8-16-32bit/8.33 MHz 266.56 Mbit/s 33.32 MB/s 1988
VME64 32-64bit 400 Mbit/s 40 MB/s 1981
NuBus 10 MHz 400 Mbit/s 40 MB/s 1987
DEC TURBOchannel 32-bit/12.5 MHz 400 Mbit/s 50 MB/s
MCA 16-32bit/10 MHz 660 Mbit/s 66 MB/s 1987
NuBus90 20 MHz 800 Mbit/s 80 MB/s 1991
APbus 32-bit/25(?) MHz 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s[35]
Sbus 32-bit/25 MHz 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s 1989
DEC TURBOchannel 32-bit/25 MHz 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
Local Bus 98 32-bit/33 MHz 1,056 Mbit/s 132 MB/s
VESA Local Bus (VLB) 32-bit/33 MHz 1,067 Mbit/s 133.33 MB/s 1992
PCI 32-bit/33 MHz 1,067 Mbit/s 133.33 MB/s 1993
HP GSC-1X 1,136 Mbit/s 142 MB/s
Zorro III 32-bit/async (eq. 37.5 MHz)[36][37] 1,200 Mbit/s 150 MB/s[38] 1990
VESA Local Bus (VLB) 32-bit/40 MHz 1,280 Mbit/s 160 MB/s 1992
Sbus 64-bit/25 MHz 1.6 Gbit/s 200 MB/s 1995
PCI Express 1.0 (×1 link)[39] 2.5 Gbit/s 250 MB/s [z] 2004
HP GSC-2X 2.048 Gbit/s 256 MB/s
PCI 64-bit/33 MHz 2.133 Gbit/s 266.7 MB/s 1993
PCI 32-bit/66 MHz 2.133 Gbit/s 266.7 MB/s 1995
AGP 2.133 Gbit/s 266.7 MB/s 1997
RapidIO Gen1 1× 2.5 Gbit/s 312.5 MB/s
HIO bus 2.560 Gbit/s 320 MB/s
GIO64 64-bit/40 MHz 2.560 Gbit/s 320 MB/s
PCI Express 1.0 (×2 link)[39] 5 Gbit/s 500 MB/s [z] 2011
PCI Express 2.0 (×1 link)[40] 5 Gbit/s 500 MB/s [z] 2007
AGP 2× 4.266 Gbit/s 533.3 MB/s 1997
PCI 64-bit/66 MHz 4.266 Gbit/s 533.3 MB/s
PCI-X DDR 16-bit 4.266 Gbit/s 533.3 MB/s
RapidIO Gen2 1× 5 Gbit/s 625 MB/s
PCI 64-bit/100 MHz 6.4 Gbit/s 800 MB/s
PCI Express 3.0 (×1 link)[41] 8 Gbit/s 984.6 MB/s [y] 2011
Unified Media Interface (UMI) (×4 link) 10 Gbit/s 1 GB/s [z] 2011
Direct Media Interface (DMI) (×4 link) 10 Gbit/s 1 GB/s [z] 2004
Enterprise Southbridge Interface (ESI) 8 Gbit/s 1 GB/s
PCI Express 1.0 (×4 link)[39] 10 Gbit/s 1 GB/s [z] 2004
AGP 4× 8.533 Gbit/s 1.067 GB/s 1998
PCI-X 133 8.533 Gbit/s 1.067 GB/s
PCI-X QDR 16-bit 8.533 Gbit/s 1.067 GB/s
InfiniBand single 4×[28] 8 Gbit/s 1 GB/s
RapidIO Gen1 4× 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 2× 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
UPA 15.360 Gbit/s 1.920 GB/s
Unified Media Interface 2.0 (UMI 2.0; ×4 link) 20 Gbit/s 2 GB/s [z] 2012
Direct Media Interface 2.0 (DMI 2.0; ×4 link) 20 Gbit/s 2 GB/s [z] 2011
PCI Express 1.0 (×8 link)[39] 20 Gbit/s 2 GB/s [z] 2004
PCI Express 2.0 (×4 link)[40] 20 Gbit/s 2 GB/s [z] 2007
AGP 8× 17.066 Gbit/s 2.133 GB/s 2002
PCI-X DDR 17.066 Gbit/s 2.133 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 4× 20 Gbit/s 2.5 GB/s
Sun JBus (200 MHz) 20.48 Gbit/s 2.56 GB/s 2003
HyperTransport (800 MHz, 16-pair) 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s 2001
PCI Express 3.0 (×4 link)[41] 32 Gbit/s 3.938 GB/s [y] 2011
HyperTransport (1 GHz, 16-pair) 32 Gbit/s 4 GB/s
PCI Express 1.0 (×16 link)[39] 40 Gbit/s 4 GB/s [z] 2004
PCI Express 2.0 (×8 link)[40] 40 Gbit/s 4 GB/s [z] 2007
PCI-X QDR 34.133 Gbit/s 4.266 GB/s
AGP 8× 64-bit 34.133 Gbit/s 4.266 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 8x 40 Gbit/s 5 GB/s
Direct Media Interface 3.0 (DMI 3.0; ×4 link) 40 Gbit/s 4 GB/s [z] 2015
PCI Express 3.0 (×8 link)[41] 64 Gbit/s 7.877 GB/s [y] 2011
PCI Express 1.0 (×32 link)[39] 80 Gbit/s 8 GB/s [z] 2001
PCI Express 2.0 (×16 link)[40] 80 Gbit/s 8 GB/s [z] 2007
RapidIO Gen2 16x 80 Gbit/s 10 GB/s
PCI Express 3.0 (×16 link)[41] 128 Gbit/s 15.75 GB/s [y] 2011
PCI Express 2.0 (×32 link)[40] 160 Gbit/s 16 GB/s [z] 2007
QPI (4.80GT/s, 2.40 GHz) 153.6 Gbit/s 19.2 GB/s
HyperTransport 2.0 (1.4 GHz, 32-pair) 179.2 Gbit/s 22.4 GB/s 2004
QPI (5.86GT/s, 2.93 GHz) 187.52 Gbit/s 23.44 GB/s
QPI (6.40GT/s, 3.20 GHz) 204.8 Gbit/s 25.6 GB/s
QPI (7.2GT/s, 3.6 GHz) 230.4 Gbit/s 28.8 GB/s 2012
PCI Express 3.0 (×32 link)[41] 256 Gbit/s 31.51 GB/s [y] 2011
QPI (8.0GT/s, 4.0 GHz) 256.0 Gbit/s 32.0 GB/s 2012
QPI (9.6GT/s, 4.8 GHz) 307.2 Gbit/s 38.4 GB/s 2014
HyperTransport 3.0 (2.6 GHz, 32-pair) 332.8 Gbit/s 41.6 GB/s 2006
HyperTransport 3.1 (3.2 GHz, 32-pair) 409.6 Gbit/s 51.2 GB/s 2008
NVLink 640 Gbit/s 80 GB/s 2016
NVLink 2.0 2,400 Gbit/s 300 GB/s 2017

筆記型電腦的外部匯流排[编辑]

名稱 最高速率(位元/位元組) 推出年分
PC Card 16-bit 255 ns byte mode 31.36 Mbit/s 3.92 MB/s
PC Card 16-bit 255 ns word mode 62.72 Mbit/s 7.84 MB/s
PC Card 16-bit 100 ns byte mode 80 Mbit/s 10 MB/s
PC Card 16-bit 100 ns word mode 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s
PC Card 32-bit (CardBus) byte mode 267 Mbit/s 33.33 MB/s
ExpressCard 1.2 USB 2.0 mode 480 Mbit/s 60 MB/s
PC Card 32-bit (CardBus) word mode 533 Mbit/s 66.66 MB/s
PC Card 32-bit (CardBus) doubleword mode 1,067 Mbit/s 133.33 MB/s
ExpressCard 1.2 PCI Express mode 2,500 Mbit/s 250 MB/s
ExpressCard 2.0 USB 3.0 mode 4,800 Mbit/s 600 MB/s
ExpressCard 2.0 PCI Express mode 5,000 Mbit/s 625 MB/s

電腦儲存設備[编辑]

名稱 最高速率(位元/位元組) 推出年分
Teletype Model 33 paper tape (70 bit/s, 10 ASCII characters per second) 0.000070 Mbit/s 0.000010 MB/s 1963
TRS-80 Model 1 Level 1 BASIC cassette tape interface (250 bit/s ) 0.00025 Mbit/s 0.000032 MB/s 1977
Apple 2 cassette tape interface (1500 bit/s) 0.0015 Mbit/s 0.0002 MB/s 1977
Single Density 8-inch FM Floppy Disk Controller (160 KB) 0.250 Mbit/s 0.031 MB/s 1973
Double Density 5.25-inch MFM Floppy Disk Controller (360 KB) 0.500 Mbit/s 0.062 MB/s 1978
High Density MFM Floppy Disk Controller (1.2 MB/1.44 MB) 1.0 Mbit/s 0.124 MB/s 1984
CD Controller (1×) 1.171 Mbit/s 0.146 MB/s 1988
MFM hard disk 5 Mbit/s 0.625 MB/s 1980
RLL hard disk 7.5 Mbit/s 0.937 MB/s
DVD Controller (1×) 11.1 Mbit/s 1.32 MB/s
ESDI 24 Mbit/s 3 MB/s
ATA PIO Mode 0 26.4 Mbit/s 3.3 MB/s 1986
HD DVD Controller (1×) 36 Mbit/s 4.5 MB/s
Blu-ray Controller (1×) 36 Mbit/s 4.5 MB/s
SCSI (Narrow SCSI) (5 MHz)[42] 40 Mbit/s 5 MB/s 1986
ATA PIO Mode 1 41.6 Mbit/s 5.2 MB/s 1994
ATA PIO Mode 2 66.4 Mbit/s 8.3 MB/s 1994
Fast SCSI (8 bits/10 MHz) 80 Mbit/s 10 MB/s
ATA PIO Mode 3 88.8 Mbit/s 11.1 MB/s 1996
AoE over Fast Ethernet[43] 100 Mbit/s 11.9 MB/s 2009
iSCSI over Fast Ethernet[44] 100 Mbit/s 11.9 MB/s 2004
ATA PIO Mode 4 133.3 Mbit/s 16.7 MB/s 1996
Fast Wide SCSI (16 bits/10 MHz) 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s
Ultra SCSI (Fast-20 SCSI) (8 bits/20 MHz) 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s
Ultra DMA ATA 33 264 Mbit/s 33 MB/s 1998
Ultra Wide SCSI (16 bits/20 MHz) 320 Mbit/s 40 MB/s
Ultra-2 SCSI 40 (Fast-40 SCSI) (8 bits/40 MHz) 320 Mbit/s 40 MB/s
Ultra DMA ATA 66 533.6 Mbit/s 66.7 MB/s 2000
Blu-ray Controller (16×) 576 Mbit/s 72 MB/s
Ultra-2 wide SCSI (16 bits/40 MHz) 640 Mbit/s 80 MB/s
Serial Storage Architecture SSA 640 Mbit/s 80 MB/s 1990
Ultra DMA ATA 100 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s 2002
Fibre Channel 1GFC (1.0625 GHz)[45] 850 Mbit/s 103.23 MB/s 1997
AoE over gigabit Ethernet, jumbo frames[46] 1,000 Mbit/s 124.2 MB/s 2009
iSCSI over gigabit Ethernet, jumbo frames[47] 1,000 Mbit/s 123.9 MB/s 2004
Ultra DMA ATA 133 1,064 Mbit/s 133 MB/s 2005
Ultra-3 SCSI (Ultra 160 SCSI; Fast-80 Wide SCSI) (16 bits/40 MHz DDR) 1,280 Mbit/s 160 MB/s
SATA revision 1.0[48] 1,500 Mbit/s 150 MB/s [a] 2003
Fibre Channel 2GFC (2.125 GHz)[45] 1,700 Mbit/s 206.5 MB/s 2001
Ultra-320 SCSI (Ultra4 SCSI) (16 bits/80 MHz DDR) 2,560 Mbit/s 320 MB/s
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS)[48] 3,000 Mbit/s 300 MB/s [a] 2004
SATA Revision 2.0[48] 3,000 Mbit/s 300 MB/s [a] 2004
Fibre Channel 4GFC (4.25 GHz)[45] 3,400 Mbit/s 413 MB/s 2004
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) 2[48] 6,000 Mbit/s 600 MB/s [a] 2009
SATA Revision 3.0[48] 6,000 Mbit/s 600 MB/s [a] 2008
Fibre Channel 8GFC (8.50 GHz)[45] 6,800 Mbit/s 826 MB/s 2005
Fibre Channel 16GFC (14.025 GHz)[45] 13,600 Mbit/s 1,652 MB/s [b] 2011
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) 3[48] 12,000 Mbit/s 1,200 MB/s 2013
AoE over 10GbE[46] 10,000 Mbit/s 1,242 MB/s 2009
iSCSI over 10GbE[47] 10,000 Mbit/s 1,239 MB/s 2004
FCoE over 10GbE[49] 10,000 Mbit/s 1,206 MB/s 2009
SATA revision 3.2 - SATA Express 16,000 Mbit/s 2,000 MB/s 2013
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) 4 (preliminary specification) 22,500 Mbit/s 2,400 MB/s [c] tba
Fibre Channel 32GFC (28.05 GHz)[45] 26,424 Mbit/s 3,303 MB/s [b] 2016
NVMe over M.2 or U.2 (using PCI Express 3.0 ×4 link)[41] 32,000 Mbit/s 3,938 MB/s 2013
iSCSI over InfiniBand 32,000 Mbit/s 4,000 MB/s 2007
iSCSI over 100G Ethernet[47] 100,000 Mbit/s 12,392 MB/s 2010
FCoE over 100G Ethernet[49] 100,000 Mbit/s 12,064 MB/s 2010

電腦外部匯流排[编辑]

名稱 最高速率(位元/位元組) 推出年分
Apple Desktop Bus 10.0 kbit/s 1.25 kB/s 1986
PS/2 port 12.0 kbit/s 1.5 kB/s 1987
Serial MIDI 31.25 kbit/s 3.9 kB/s 1983
CBM Bus max[50][51] 41.6 kbit/s 5.1 kB/s 1981
Serial RS-232 max 230.4 kbit/s 28.8 kB/s 1962
Serial DMX512A 250.0 kbit/s 31.25 kB/s 1998
Parallel (Centronics) 1 Mbit/s 125 kB/s 1970 (standardised 1994)
Serial 16550 UART max 1.5 Mbit/s 187.5 kB/s
USB 1.0 low speed 1.536 Mbit/s 192 kB/s 1996
Serial UART max 2.7648 Mbit/s 345.6 kB/s
GPIB/HPIB (IEEE-488.1) IEEE-488 max. 8 Mbit/s 1 MB/s Late 1960s (standardised 1976)
Serial EIA-422 max. 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s
USB 1.0 full speed 12 Mbit/s 1.5 MB/s 1996
Parallel (Centronics) EPP 2 MHz 16 Mbit/s 2 MB/s 1992
Serial EIA-485 max. 35 Mbit/s 4.375 MB/s
GPIB/HPIB (IEEE-488.1-2003) IEEE-488 max. 64 Mbit/s 8 MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 100 98.304 Mbit/s 12.288 MB/s 1995
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 200 196.608 Mbit/s 24.576 MB/s 1995
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 400 393.216 Mbit/s 49.152 MB/s 1995
USB 2.0 high speed 480 Mbit/s 60 MB/s 2000
FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 800[52] 786.432 Mbit/s 98.304 MB/s 2002
Fibre Channel 1 Gb SCSI 1,062.5 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 1600[52] 1.573 Gbit/s 196.6 MB/s 2007
Fibre Channel 2 Gb SCSI 2,125 Mbit/s 200 MB/s
eSATA (SATA 300) 3 Gbit/s 375 MB/s 2004
CoaXPress Base (up and down bidirectional link) 3.125 Gbit/s + 20.833 Mbit/s 390 MB/s 2009
FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 3200[52] 3,145.7 Mbit/s 393.216 MB/s 2007
External PCI Express 2.0 ×1 4 Gbit/s 500 MB/s
Fibre Channel 4 Gb SCSI 4.25 Gbit/s 531.25 MB/s
USB 3.0 SuperSpeed 5 Gbit/s 625 MB/s 2010
eSATA (SATA 600) 6 Gbit/s 750 MB/s 2011
CoaXPress full (up and down bidirectional link) 6.25 Gbit/s + 20.833 Mbit/s 781 MB/s 2009
External PCI Express 2.0 ×2 8 Gbit/s 1,000 MB/s
USB 3.1 SuperSpeed+ 10 Gbit/s 1,250 MB/s 2013
Thunderbolt 2 × 10 Gbit/s 2 × 1,250 MB/s 2011
External PCI Express 2.0 ×4 16 Gbit/s 2,000 MB/s
Thunderbolt 2 20 Gbit/s 2,500 MB/s 2013
External PCI Express 2.0 ×8 32 Gbit/s 4,000 MB/s
Thunderbolt 3 40 Gbit/s 5,000 MB/s 2015
External PCI Express 2.0 ×16 64 Gbit/s 8,000 MB/s

MACPHY 的電腦匯流排[编辑]

名稱 最高速率(位元/位元組) 推出年分
Media Independent Interface (MII; 4 lanes) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Reduced MII (RMII; 2 lanes) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Serial MII (SMII; 1 lane) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Gigabit MII (GMII; 8 lanes) 1.0 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
Reduced gigabit/s MII (RGMII; 4 lanes) 1.0 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
Serial gigabit/s MII (SGMII; 2 lanes) 1.25 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
Reduced serial gigabit/s MII (RSGMII; 2 lanes) 2.5 Gbit/s 250 MB/s
Reduced serial gigabit/s MII plus (RSGMII-PLUS; 2 lanes) 5.0 Gbit/s 500 MB/s
Quad serial gigabit/s MII (QSGMII; 2 lanes) 5.0 Gbit/s 500 MB/s
10 gigabit/s MII (XGMII; 32 lanes) 10.0 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
XGMII attachment unit interface (XAUI; 4 lanes) 10.0 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
40 gigabit/s MII (XLGMII) 40.0 Gbit/s 5 GB/s
100 gigabit/s MII (CGMII) 100.0 Gbit/s 12.5 GB/s 2008

PHYXPDR 的電腦匯流排[编辑]

名稱 最高速率(位元/位元組) 推出年分
10 gigabit/s 16-bit interface (XSBI; 16 lanes) 0.995 Gbit/s 0.124 GB/s

記憶體匯流排[编辑]

雙通道頻寬是理論上能夠達到的最大頻寬值,並不表示實際操作會有相等的效能提升。在許多方面,雙通道(2 倍頻寬)的效能與單通道的效能相近。


記憶體類型 晶片規格 記憶體頻率 記憶體速率 記憶體頻寬(位元/位元組)
FPM DRAM 45 ns 22 MHz 0.177 GT/s 1.416 Gbit/s 177 MB/s
EDO DRAM 30 ns 33 MHz 0.266 GT/s 2.128 Gbit/s 266 MB/s
PC-66 SDR SDRAM 10/15 ns 66 MHz 0.066 GT/s 4.264 Gbit/s 533 MB/s
PC-100 SDR SDRAM 8 ns 100 MHz 0.100 GT/s 6.4 Gbit/s 800 MB/s
PC-133 SDR SDRAM 7/7.5 ns 133 MHz 0.133 GT/s 8.528 Gbit/s 1.066 GB/s
RIMM-1200 RDRAM PC-600 300 MHz 0.600 GT/s 9.6 Gbit/s 1.2 GB/s
RIMM-1400 RDRAM PC-700 350 MHz 0.700 GT/s 11.2 Gbit/s 1.4 GB/s
RIMM-1600 RDRAM PC-800 400 MHz 0.800 GT/s 12.8 Gbit/s 1.6 GB/s
PC-1600 DDR SDRAM DDR-200 100 MHz 0.200 GT/s 12.8 Gbit/s 1.6 GB/s
RIMM-2100 RDRAM PC-1066 533 MHz 1.066 GT/s 17.034 Gbit/s 2.133 GB/s
PC-2100 DDR SDRAM DDR-266 133 MHz 0.266 GT/s 17.034 Gbit/s 2.133 GB/s
PC-2700 DDR SDRAM DDR-333 166 MHz 0.333 GT/s 21.336 Gbit/s 2.667 GB/s
PC-3200 DDR SDRAM DDR-400 200 MHz 0.400 GT/s 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s
PC2-3200 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-400 200 MHz 0.400 GT/s 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s
PC-3500 DDR SDRAM DDR-433 216 MHz 0.433 GT/s 27.728 Gbit/s 3.466 GB/s
PC-3700 DDR SDRAM DDR-466 233 MHz 0.466 GT/s 29.864 Gbit/s 3.733 GB/s
PC-4000 DDR SDRAM DDR-500 250 MHz 0.500 GT/s 32 Gbit/s 4 GB/s
PC-4200 DDR SDRAM DDR-533 266 MHz 0.533 GT/s 34.128 Gbit/s 4.266 GB/s
PC2-4200 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-533 266 MHz 0.533 GT/s 34.128 Gbit/s 4.266 GB/s
PC-4400 DDR SDRAM DDR-550 275 MHz 0.550 GT/s 35.2 Gbit/s 4.4 GB/s
PC-4800 DDR SDRAM DDR-600 300 MHz 0.600 GT/s 38.4 Gbit/s 4.8 GB/s
PC2-5300 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-667 333 MHz 0.667 GT/s 42.664 Gbit/s 5.333 GB/s
PC2-6000 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-750 375 MHz 0.750 GT/s 48 Gbit/s 6 GB/s
PC2-6400 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-800 400 MHz 0.800 GT/s 51.2 Gbit/s 6.4 GB/s
PC3-6400 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-800 400 MHz 0.800 GT/s 51.2 Gbit/s 6.4 GB/s
PC2-7200 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-900 450 MHz 0.900 GT/s 57.6 Gbit/s 7.2 GB/s
PC2-8000 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1000 500 MHz 1 GT/s 64 Gbit/s 8 GB/s
PC2-8500 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1066 533 MHz 1.066 GT/s 68 Gbit/s 8.5 GB/s
PC3-8500 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1066 533 MHz 1.066 GT/s 68 Gbit/s 8.5 GB/s
PC2-8800 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1100 550 MHz 1.1 GT/s 70.4 Gbit/s 8.8 GB/s
PC2-8888 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1100 550 MHz 1.111 GT/s 71.104 Gbit/s 8.888 GB/s
PC2-9136 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1142 571 MHz 1.142 GT/s 73.088 Gbit/s 9.136 GB/s
PC2-9200 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1150 575 MHz 1.15 GT/s 73.6 Gbit/s 9.2 GB/s
PC2-9600 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1200 600 MHz 1.2 GT/s 76.8 Gbit/s 9.6 GB/s
PC2-10000 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1250 625 MHz 1.25 GT/s 80 Gbit/s 10 GB/s
PC3-10600 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1333 667 MHz 1.333 GT/s 85.336 Gbit/s 10.667 GB/s
PC3-11000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1375 688 MHz 1.375 GT/s 88 Gbit/s 11 GB/s
PC3-12800 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1600 800 MHz 1.6 GT/s 102.4 Gbit/s 12.8 GB/s
PC3-13000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1625 813 MHz 1.625 GT/s 104 Gbit/s 13 GB/s
PC3-14400 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1800 900 MHz 1.8 GT/s 115.2 Gbit/s 14.4 GB/s
PC3-14900 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1866 933 MHz 1.866 GT/s 119.464 Gbit/s 14.933 GB/s
PC3-15000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1866 933 MHz 1.866 GT/s 119.464 Gbit/s 14.933 GB/s
PC3-16000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2000 1,000 MHz 2 GT/s 128 Gbit/s 16 GB/s
PC3-17000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2133 1,067 MHz 2.133 GT/s 136.528 Gbit/s 17.066 GB/s
PC4-17000 DDR4 SDRAM DDR4-2133 1,067 MHz 2.133 GT/s 136.5 Gbit/s 17 GB/s[53]
PC3-17600 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2200 1,100 MHz 2.2 GT/s 140.8 Gbit/s 17.6 GB/s
PC3-19200 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2400 1,200 MHz 2.4 GT/s 153.6 Gbit/s 19.2 GB/s
PC3-21300 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2666 1,333 MHz 2.666 GT/s 170.4 Gbit/s 21.3 GB/s
PC3-24000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-3000 1,500 MHz 3.0 GT/s 192 Gbit/s 24 GB/s
PC4-25600 DDR4 SDRAM DDR4-3200 1,600 MHz 3.2 GT/s 204.8 Gbit/s 25.6 GB/s

參見[编辑]

註解[编辑]

  1. ^ TTY uses a Baudot code, not ASCII. This uses 5 bits per character instead of 8, plus one start and approx. 1.5 stop bits (7.5 total bits per character sent).
  2. ^ Data communication over the telephone network
  3. ^ Morse can transport 26 alphabetic, 10 numeric and one interword gap plaintext symbols. Transmitting 37 different symbols requires 5.21 bits of information (25.21=37). A skilled operator encoding the benchmark "PARIS" plus an interword gap (equal to 31.26 bits) at 40 wpm is operating at an equivalence of 20.84 bit/s.
  4. ^ WPM, or Words Per Minute, is the number of times the word "PARIS" is transferred per minute. Strictly speaking the code is quinary, accounting inter-element, inter-letter, and inter-word gaps, yielding 50 binary elements (bits) per one word. Counting characters, including inter-word gaps, gives six characters per word or 240 characters per minute, and finally four characters per second.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 All modems are wrongly assumed to be in serial operation with 1 start bit, 8 data bits, no parity, and 1 stop bit (2 stop bits for 110-鮑率 modems). Therefore, currently modems are wrongly calculated with transmission of 10 bits per 8-bit byte (11 bits for 110-鮑率 modems). Although the serial port is nearly always used to connect a modem and has equivalent data rates, the protocols, modulations and error correction differ completely.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 數據機 Types and Timeline, Daxal Communications, 2003-12-16 [2009-04-16] 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 ITU-T Recommendations: V Series: Data communication over the telephone network. ITU. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 56K modems: V.90 and V.92 have just 5% overhead for the protocol signalling. The maximum capacity can only be achieved when the upstream (service provider) end of the connection is digital, i.e. a DS0 channel.
  9. ^ Note that effective aggregate bandwidth for an ISDN installation is typically higher than the rates shown for a single channel due to the use of multiple channels. A basic rate interface (BRI) provides two "B" channels and one "D" channel. Each B channel provides 64 kBit/s bandwidth and the "D" channel carries signaling (call setup) information. B channels can be bonded to provide a 128 kbit/s data rate. Primary rate interfaces (PRI) vary depending on whether the region uses E1 (Europe, world) or T1 (North America) bearers. In E1 regions, the PRI carries 30 B-channels and one D-channel; in T1 regions the PRI carries 23 B-channels and one D-channel. The D-channel has different bandwidth on the two interfaces.
  10. ^ Massey, David, Timeline of Telecommunications, Telephone Tribute, 2006-07-04 [2009-04-16] 
  11. ^ Adam.com.au
  12. ^ Recommendation G.991.1 (10/98). ITU. 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 DOCSIS 1.0 includes technology which first became available around 1995–1996, and has since become very widely deployed. DOCSIS 1.1 introduces some security improvements and Quality of Service (QoS).
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 DOCSIS 2.0 specifications provide increased upstream throughput for symmetric services.
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 DOCSIS 3.0 includes support for channel bonding and IPv6.
  16. ^ G.983.2. ITU. 
  17. ^ DOCSIS 3.1 is currently in development by the Cablelabs Consortium
  18. ^ G.984.4 : Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON). ITU. 
  19. ^ G.987 : 10-Gigabit-capable passive optical network (XG-PON) systems. ITU. 
  20. ^ Most operators only support up to 9600bit/s
  21. ^ SDSL is available in various speeds.
  22. ^ ADSL connections will vary in throughput from 64 kbit/s to several Mbit/s depending on configuration. Most are commonly below 2 Mbit/s. Some ADSL and SDSL connections have a higher digital bandwidth than T1 but their rate is not guaranteed, and will drop when the system gets overloaded, whereas the T1 type connections are usually guaranteed and have no contention ratios.
  23. ^ Satellite internet may have a high bandwidth but also has a high latency due to the distance between the modem, satellite and hub. One-way satellite connections exist where all the downstream traffic is handled by satellite and the upstream traffic by land-based connections such as 56K modems and ISDN.
  24. ^ Ethernet throughput
  25. ^ 25.0 25.1 "MoCA 1.1 improves throughput" over coaxial cable to 175 Mbits/s versus the 100 Mbits/s provided by the MoCA 1.0 specification.
  26. ^ FireWire natively supports TCP/IP, and is often used at an alternative to Ethernet when connecting 2 nodes. Tweaktown.com
  27. ^ Data rate comparison between FW and Giganet shows that FW's lower overhead has nearly the same throughput as Giganet. Unibrain.com
  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.7 28.8 28.9 InfiniBand SDR, DDR and QDR use an 8b/10b encoding scheme.
  29. ^ 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 29.8 InfiniBand FDR-10, FDR and EDR use a 64b/66b encoding scheme.
  30. ^ Mac History
  31. ^ VAW: Apple IIgs Specs
  32. ^ The Zorro II bus use 4 clocks per 16-Bit of data transferred. See the Zorro III technical specification for more information.
  33. ^ Japan wikipedia article, Bus used in early NEC PC-9800 series and compatible systems
  34. ^ STD 32 Bus Specification and Designer's Guide
  35. ^ Local Area Networks Newsletter by Paul Polishuk, September 1992, Page 7 (APbus used in Sony NeWS and NEC UP4800 workstations and NEC EWS4800 servers after VMEbus and before switch to PCI)
  36. ^ Dave Haynie, designer of the Zorro III bus, claims in this posting that the theoretical max of the Zorro III bus can be derived by the timing information given in chapter 5 of the Zorro III technical specification.
  37. ^ Dave Haynie, designer of the Zorro III bus, states in this posting that Zorro III is an asynchronous bus and therefore does not have a classical MHz rating. A maximum theoretical MHz value may be derived by examining timing constraints detailed in the Zorro III technical specification, which should yield about 37.5 MHz. No existing implementation performs to this level.
  38. ^ Dave Haynie, designer of the Zorro III bus, claims in this posting that Zorro III has a max burst rate of 150 MB/s.
  39. ^ 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.4 39.5 Note that PCI Express 1.0/2.0 lanes use an 8b/10b encoding scheme.
  40. ^ 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 PCIe 2.0 effectively doubles the bus standard's bandwidth from 2.5 GT/s to 5 GT/s
  41. ^ 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 41.5 PCIe 3.0 increases the bandwidth from 5 GT/s to 8 GT/s and switches to 128b-130b encoding
  42. ^ SCSI-1, SCSI-2 and SCSI-3 are signaling protocols and do not explicitly refer to a specific rate. Narrow SCSI exists using SCSI-1 and SCSI-2. Higher rates use SCSI-2 or later.
  43. ^ minimum overhead is 38 byte L1/L2, 14 byte AoE per 1024 byte user data
  44. ^ minimum overhead is 38 byte L1/L2, 20 byte IP, 20 byte TCP per 1460 byte user data
  45. ^ 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 45.5 Fibre Channel 1GFC, 2GFC, 4GFC use an 8b/10b encoding scheme. Fibre Channel 10GFC, which uses a 64B/66B encoding scheme, is not compatible with 1GFC, 2GFC and 4GFC, and is used only to interconnect switches.
  46. ^ 46.0 46.1 minimum overhead is 38 byte L1/L2, 14 byte AoE per 8192 byte user data
  47. ^ 47.0 47.1 47.2 minimum overhead is 38 byte L1/L2, 20 byte IP, 20 byte TCP per 8960 byte user data
  48. ^ 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 48.4 48.5 SATA and SAS use an 8b/10b encoding scheme.
  49. ^ 49.0 49.1 minimum overhead is 38 byte L1/L2, 36 byte FC per 2048 byte user data
  50. ^ proprietary serial version of IEEE-488 by Commodore International
  51. ^ http://cbmmuseum.kuto.de/floppy.html
  52. ^ 52.0 52.1 52.2 FireWire (IEEE 1394b) uses an 8b/10b encoding scheme.
  53. ^ Scott Mueller. Upgrading and Repairing PCs. Que Publishing. Mar 7, 2013. Table 6.11: JEDEC Standard DDR4 Module (284-PIN DIMM) Speeds and Transfer Rate

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