User talk:Eigenschaften/沙盒2

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

錯誤:請把{{Use_dmy_dates}}改成{{#time:Y/m/d}}

怪房客
Le Locataire
基本资料
导演 羅曼·波蘭斯基
监制 赫尔克里斯·贝尔维尔英语Hercules Bellville
编剧 罗兰·托普(小说)
杰拉德·布拉克英语Gérard Brach
羅曼·波蘭斯基
主演
  • 羅曼·波蘭斯基
配乐 菲利普·萨迪英语Roland Topor
摄影 斯文·尼克维斯特英语Sven Nykvist
剪辑 弗朗索瓦兹·博诺英语Françoise Bonnot
制片商 玛丽安制片公司
片长 125分钟
产地  法國
语言
英语
法语
上映及发行
上映日期
  • 1976年5月26日(法国)
  • 1976年6月11日(美国)
  • 1976年10月8日(芬兰)
发行商 派拉蒙影業
票房 510万美元[1][2]

怪房客》(法語:Le Locataire)是一部1976年法国心理學恐懼电影,由羅曼·波蘭斯基自导自演,其他主要演员还有伊莎贝尔·阿佳妮, 梅尔文·道格拉斯英语Melvyn Douglas谢利·温特斯英语Shelley Winters。该片根据1964年罗兰·托普的小说《怪房客 (小说)法语Le Locataire》所改编。[3]这也是波兰斯基的《公寓三部曲》中,继《冷血惊魂英语Repulsion (film)》和《罗丝玛丽的婴儿》之后的一部电影。[4] 该片在法国的票房达到了534,637观影人次。[5]

剧情简介[edit]

性格内向的塔尔科夫斯基(罗曼·波兰斯基饰)在巴黎租了一套公寓,他的前任房客,西蒙娜·肖因试图跳楼自杀而住院。他去医院探望肖,但发现她全身裹着绷带,无法说话。在她的床边,他遇到了同样来探望的斯特拉(伊莎贝尔·阿佳妮饰)。斯特拉情绪激动,并开始和肖说话,肖看着她的探望者们发出了一阵哭嚎。护士长坚持要求他们离开,因为她之前已经提醒过不可以和肖说话。塔尔科夫斯基试图安慰斯特拉,但他不敢说他不认识肖,因此假装自己是她的一个朋友。他们一起出去喝了一杯,看一场电影(1973年的《龙争虎斗》),在那里他们互相爱抚。出了剧院,他们分道扬镳。后来,塔尔科夫斯基打电话到医院询问肖的情况,得知她已经去世。

当塔尔科夫斯基在公寓中住下来后,因为他的乔迁聚会制造了太大的噪音,并且他没有参加反对另一个邻居的请愿活动,他不断受到邻居和房东Zy先生(梅尔文·道格拉斯)的指责和埋怨。他试图适应这个环境,但受到的干扰越来越大。他经常看到他的邻居一动不动地站在卫生间里(他从自己的窗户可以看到)。并且他发现自己房间的墙上有一个洞,里面有一颗人类的牙齿。他和他的朋友们讨论这些问题,但他们并不觉得奇怪,反而轻视他的懦弱和不反抗。他拜访了他的一个同事的公寓,他的同事用刺耳的音量播放着军乐队的唱片。一位邻居礼貌地要求他把音乐关小一点,因为他的妻子生病了,正想睡觉。塔尔科夫斯基把唱片音量放低了,但他的同事告诉邻居,他将按自己的意愿播放音乐,而且他不关心他生病的妻子。

塔尔科夫斯基接待了了乔治·巴达尔的拜访,乔治暗恋着肖,并相信她还活得很好。塔尔科夫斯基告诉了他事实,安慰了他,并与他在外面度过了一个晚上。他收到了一张乔治在还未得知肖去世时寄给她的明信片。由于他常常去肖也常去的那家附近的咖啡馆,塔被认出来是公寓的新房客。店主总是强迫他按照肖的习惯点餐,无视他的意愿,给他他没有点的东西。他们总是没有他最喜欢的高卢香烟英语Gauloises,所以他养成了抽肖常买的萬寶路 的习惯。没人知道肖为什么要自杀。

当塔尔科夫斯基的公寓被抢劫时,他变得非常激动和愤怒,而他的邻居和门房(雪莱·温特斯饰)则斥责他制造了太大的噪音,他的房东警告他不要向警方报案。一天早上,他因为发烧和做恶梦而醒来,发现自己的脸上化了妆。他买了一顶假发和一双女鞋,然后继续打扮(用他在橱里找到的西蒙娜的裙子),在深夜,静静地坐在他的房间里。他怀疑房东和邻居们在不知不觉中试图把他变成最后的房客西蒙妮,这样他也会自杀。他一天天的变得变得充满敌意和偏执(他责骂他的朋友,在公园拍打一个孩子),他的精神状态日益恶化。他看到他的邻居用把人头当足球踢,发现厕所写满了象形文字,在庭院看到自己站窗口用双筒望远镜看着浴室。塔尔科夫斯基跑到斯特拉那里寻求安慰,并在那里睡了一夜。但在她离开家去工作的第二天早晨,他认为她也处在邻居家的阴谋之中,于是在破坏了她的公寓后,他离开了这里。

在晚上,他被一对驾车的老年夫妇撞倒,他并没有受到太严重伤害。但是他认为这对年老夫妇是他的房东夫妇,并且向医生指出他们试图谋杀他。后来,这对夫妇把他送回他的公寓。疯狂的塔尔科夫斯基再次扮成女人,然后像西蒙娜·肖那样跳出公寓窗户,他相信邻居们将为之鼓掌欢呼。 他的自杀行为唤醒了他的邻居,他们打电话给警察并试图阻止他。 但是他从他们身边爬回他的公寓,并在警察抵达前再一次跳出窗户。

在最后的场景中,塔尔科夫斯基躺在之前西蒙娜·肖躺的那张病床上,全身绑满了绷带。 在他的视角,我们看到了他和斯特拉对西蒙妮的访问。最后,塔尔科夫斯基发出了与西蒙妮之前一样令人不安的哭嚎。

主要演员[edit]

制作[edit]

  • 尽管这部电影通常被视为波兰斯基“公寓三部曲”中的第三部,但这更多的靠的是运气而不是设计。这部改编自电影的电影原本是由英国导演杰克·克莱顿英语Jack Clayton制作的,克莱顿在波兰斯基开拍大约7年前就已经加入了这个项目。根据克莱顿的传记作者尼尔·辛亚德(Neil Sinyard)的说法,克莱顿原本打算在1969年左右,根据爱德华·阿尔比的剧本,为环球影业制作这部电影,但在阿尔比和电影公司的关系恶化后,这部电影的制作就没有再继续。在克莱顿的建议下,1971年派拉蒙公司买下了版权。Clayton returned to the project in the mid-1970s, and a rough draft script by Christopher Hampton was written while Clayton was preparing The Great Gatsby (1974 film)|The Great Gatsby. By the time Clayton had delivered Gatsby to Paramount in March 1974, he had learned from Robert Evans (producer)|Robert Evans that Polanski was interested in the project and wanted to play the lead role. While Clayton was occupied preparing foreign language versions of Gatsby for the European market, Paramount studio head Barry Diller began negotiations with Polanski. Although Clayton later insisted that he was never specifically asked if he was still interested, and never said "no" to it, Diller wrongly assumed that Clayton had lost interest and transferred the project to Polanski, without asking Clayton. When he found out, Clayton called Diller in September 1974, expressing his dismay that Diller had given another director a film which (Clayton insisted) had been specifically purchased by the studio for him, and for doing so without consultation.[6]
  • Production design by Pierre Guffroy and costume design by Jacques Schmidt with cinematography by Sven Nykvist and sound mixing by Jean-Pierre Ruh (法语).
  • Polanski receives no acting credit, despite the fact he plays the lead character.
  • While the main character is clearly paranoid to some extent (as exemplified in the scene when he believes a neighbour is strangling him, when he is in fact shown strangling himself), the film does not entirely reveal whether everything takes place in his head or if the strange events happening around him exist at least partially, contrary to the previous entries in Polanski's "apartment trilogy."[7][8][9]
  • The film was shot part in English, part in French, going by whatever the actors present felt more comfortable with. Afterwards, different language versions were produced in post-production, with part of the cast dubbing themselves in both the fully English and the fully French version, while the rest of the French characters were notably dubbed by actors with audibly U.S. American accents. Polanski dubbed himself in three language versions: English, French, and Italian. Isabelle Adjani did not dub herself in the English version.

主题[edit]

概述[edit]

In his review of the film for The Regrettable Moment of Sincerity, Adam Lippe writes: "Many would attest that The Pianist is Polanski's most personal work, given the obvious Holocaust subject matter, but look beneath the surface, and when the window curtains are drawn aside, Polanski's The Tenant shines brightest as the work closest to his being."[10]

Other than to the works of Franz Kafka (see below), the film's even more mysterious, ambiguous mood and atmosphere as to whether it belongs to either the horror or the psychological thriller genre has garnered it critical comparisons to both its contemporaries Don't Look Now (1973) by Nicolas Roeg[11] and Stanley Kubrick's The Shining (1980),[12] even more so than the previous two entries to Polanski's Apartment Trilogy. Given its production design, photography, and in how The Tenant crafts a creepily bizarre scenario of a group of neighbors appearing to be preying on a new tenant's life and conspire against him for that purpose, it has also been compared to the black comedy film Delicatessen (1991) by Jean-Pierre Jeunet and Marc Caro, which also stars the French actor Rufus in a supporting role, just like The Tenant and The Shining seems to suggest a house as the malevolent source to the sinister deeds of its inhabitants, and is set in a post-apocalyptic future where all animals have died and the people of a remote decaying house resort to eating each of the house's successive new janitors.[13][14]

卡夫卡的影响[edit]

Many critics have noted The Tenant's strong Kafkaesque theme, typified by an atmosphere that is absurdly over-burdened with anxiety, confusion, guilt, bleak humour, alienation, sexual frustration and paranoia. However, the film cannot be viewed as purely driven by a Kafkaesque motif because of the numerous references to Trelkovsky's delirium and heavy drinking. This allows for more than one interpretation.

Most of the action occurs within a claustrophobic environment where dark, ominous things occur without reason or explanation to a seemingly shy protagonist, whose perceived failings as a tenant are ruthlessly pursued by what Trelkovsky himself views as an increasingly cabalistic conspiracy. Minor infringements are treated as serious breaches of his tenancy agreement, and this apparent persecution escalates after he refuses to join his neighbours in a prejudiced campaign to oust a mother with a disabled child.

"The scheming plots over matters of extraordinary pettiness and inexplicable conspiracies that go on among the neighbours to gang up on others make The Tenant probably the first Kafkaesque horror film."[15]

"Much effect is derived from the absurdity of the scenario where all Trelkovsky wants to do is not bother anyone, yet everything Trelkovsky does is seen as an imposition."[16]

Critics have speculated[15] that the film's Kafkaesque atmosphere must be in part a reflection of Polanski's own Jewish experiences within a predominantly anti-Semitic environment. Trelkovsky is viewed with suspicion by almost every other character simply because he is a foreign national. For example, when he tries to report a robbery to the French police he is treated sceptically and told that as a foreigner he should not make trouble. It can be no coincidence that Polanski chose to take this title role. Both the director and the protagonist are outsiders who strive ineffectually for acceptance in what they see as a corrupt and mysterious world.

Vincent Canby wrote in the New York Times: "Trelkovsky exists. He inhabits his own body, but it's as if he had no lease on it, as if at any moment he could be dispossessed for having listened to the radio in his head after 10 P.M. People are always knocking on his walls."[17]

"The film's title [of The Tenant] could be interpreted as follows: An alien is given the chance to rent an apartment for himself in a well-ordered world, however he may be evicted at any given time once the natives find him to be in violation of this world's well-ordered rules, or failing to properly internalize them. In the end, it is of little importance who is normal and who is insane. The individual's paranoia equals our well-ordered world's desire to persecute. Nobody can help Trelkovsky - he can't even help himself. In a disenchanted, jaded world with its fixed social order, the individual and one's autonomy have but one fate: Either submission and internalization of people's rules - or insanity. Which is no real choice. Here, the individual is always on the brink of annihilation, about to lose itself."

Ulrich Behrens (Filmzentrale), Der Mieter (German review)[18]

恶性循环,自我丧失,社会同化[edit]

The Tenant has been referred to as a precursor to Kubrick's The Shining (1980),[12] as another film where the lines between reality, madness, and the supernatural become increasingly blurry (the question usually asked with The Shining is "Ghosts or cabin fever?") as the protagonist finds himself doomed to cyclically repeat another person's nightmarish fall. Just like in The Shining, the audience is slowly brought to accept the supernatural by what at first seems a slow descent into madness, or vice versa: "The audience's predilection to accept a proto-supernatural explanation [...] becomes so pronounced that at Trelkovsky's break with sanity the viewer is encouraged to take a straightforward hallucination for a supernatural act."[19]

In his book Polanski and Perception, Davide Caputo has called the fact that in the end, Trelkovsky defenestrates himself not once, but twice "a cruel reminder of the film's 'infinite loop'"[20] of Trelkovsky becoming Mme. Choule meeting Trelkovsky shortly before dying in the hospital, a loop not unlike The Shining's explanation that Jack Torrance "has always been the Overlook's caretaker". Timothy Brayton of Antagony & Ecstasy likens this eternally looping cycle of The Tenant to the film's recurring Egyptian motifs:

"There is a recurrent motif of Egyptian hieroglyphics that remains unexplained in the film. Ancient Egyptian religious belief, it is important to note, was based on the notion that all things are the same all throughout history: not the same as Hinduism's conception that everything has happened before and will happen again, but more the belief that everything is always happening. The best I can come up with is to suppose that Trelkovsky, whether in his mind or in reality, is always the same as Simone. He does not become her, so much as we finally reach a point where the distinction between the two of them is no longer important. Either way, the result is the same: there is no Trelkovsky. To someone whose life had been as traumatic as Polanski's, that idea might well have been an attractive one."

Timothy Brayton (Antagony & Ecstasy), Apartment house fools[21]

Steve Biodrowski of Cinefantastique writes: "THE TENANT is short on typical horror movie action: there are no monsters, and there is little in the way of traditional suspense. That's because the film is not operating on the kind of fear that most horror films exploit: fear of death. Instead, THE TENANT's focus is on an equally disturbing fear: loss of identity."[22] In his review of the film for The Regrettable Moment of Sincerity, Adam Lippe writes of Trelkovsky's surroundings sinisterly shaping him into an echo of the past: "Coming from a Nazi-occupied childhood, Polanski no doubt uses his character's identity crisis to illustrate society's ability to shape and mold the uniqueness of its members, whether they like it or not."[10] Similarly, Dan Jardine of Apollo Guide writes: "Polanski seems to be studying how people, in our isolating world, increasingly mould themselves to their environment, sometimes to the point where their individual identity is absorbed into the world around them. The longer he is in the building, the more Trelkovsky begins to lose sight of where his internal sense of his 'self' ends, and his social identity begins."[23]

"What happens to The Tenant? Is poor Trelkovsky haunted by ghosts or does he turn insane? Does a (mysteriously) hostile environment drive him to commit suicide, or do the necessities of a cold reality break a tender soul? Could Trelkovsky be identical to Simone Choul from the beginning? Are we even witnessing Simone Choul's very own death hallucination, with Trelkovsky as nothing but a figment of her dying mind?" [24]

Wollo (Die besten Horrorfilme.de), Der Mieter (German review)

Because of how little we get to know of Trelkovsky's life prior to his applying for the apartment and moving in, only to become an echo of former tenant Mme. Choule because of his frail, almost inexistent personality's weak resistance to either her ghost or his bullying neighbors as if he has always been Mme. Choule and always will be, the film has also been referred to as an early precursor to Fight Club (1999), a film where the final twist reveals it to be about a case of split personality.[10]

孤独和幽闭恐惧症[edit]

A recurring theme with Polanski's films, but especially pronounced in The Tenant, is that of the protagonist as a silent, isolated observer in hiding. As Brogan Morris writes in Flickering Myth: "One of Roman Polanski's recurring motifs has always been the horror of the apartment space. It was as recently as his last film, Carnage, and in a crucial sequence of his masterful The Pianist: it's from an apartment window which Szpilman can do nothing but watch atrocities unfold outside. The fascination is there most obviously, though, in Polanski's 'Apartment Trilogy' [...]. And The Tenant, a blackly comedic meta-horror, is perhaps Polanski's ultimate use of the apartment as a claustrophobic, paranoid zone of terror."[25]

"The Tenant also makes an interesting film to read in term of Roman Polanski's own life – he, like the character he plays, is a Pole who went to live in Paris very shortly after the film was made. His other horror films – Repulsion, Rosemary's Baby – like The Tenant, see the apartment as a home of paranoia and madness. You could extend the analogy further and compare Repulsion, Rosemary's Baby and The Tenant to Polanski's The Pianist, where Adrien Brody's protagonist, a Jew living in Poland under Nazi occupation, is reduced to hiding a pitiful, starving existence hiding in cubbyholes and the bombed-out ruins of buildings where he cannot be sure whether the people he encounters are friend or foe or will betray him. Polanski himself grew up in the Krakow ghettos as a Jewish child under the Nazi occupation and survived by hiding in the countryside and with other families after his parents were taken to the concentration camps, so perhaps one can see the very personal nature of the recurrent themes of isolation, paranoia and the feeling that the apartment is an alien world in his work."

Richard Scheib (Moira: Science Fiction, Horror and Fantasy Film Review),  THE TENANT (Le Locataire)[15]

性异常与压迫[edit]

Related to the aforementioned kafkaesque guilt and the theme of identity loss, another theme that appears throughout the film is that of sexual deviance and Trelkovsky's increasing trespassing of traditional gender roles, as he more and more turns into an echo of former tenant Mme. Choule. German reviewer Andreas Staben writes: "And again, [Polanski] tells of sexual repression, and in Polanski's astounding, unpretentious performance, Trelkovsky's escape into the identity of Simone Choule appears as a consequential closure of all three films [of the Apartment Trilogy]. Other than was maybe the case still with Repulsion, there can be no talk whatsoever of a psycho-pathological case study anymore: Here, the individual is entirely wiped out and all that remains is the horror of facing a pure void."[26]

"In The Tenant, Roman Polanski explores again the psychic terrain of guilt, dread, paranoia, fears of sexual inadequacy and hysteria he made so familiar in Repulsion, Rosemary's Baby, Macbeth, and Chinatown. [...] [T]he confusion of sexual roles is more pronounced here than anywhere else in [Polanski's] work. The slightly decadent and fetishistic, but innocent, bedtime games of Cul-de-sac have developed into the signs of a basic confusion concerning sexual identity. T.'s acquisition of feminine costume and habits speaks to a repressed and disturbing need. He is not attracted to women, in fact cannot perform sexually when Stella (Isabelle Adjani) takes him home. In this respect he is again the counterpart of Simone Schoul who, he is told, was never interested at all in men. As he is drawn more completely into the idea of becoming this woman, T. pauses to speculate about what defines him. If a man loses an arm, he wonders, does the arm or the remaining body define his selfhood? How much can a man lose, change, or give away and still remain 'himself'? Or, to paraphrase the advertisers, does the cigarette make the man?"

Norman Hale (Movietone News, no. 52, October 1976, p. 38-39), Review: Tenant[27]

反应[edit]

Although The Tenant was poorly received on its release, Roger Ebert declaring it "not merely bad -- it's an embarrassment,"[28] it has since become a cult favorite.[29][30][31] Bruce Campbell named it one of his favorite horror movies in an interview with Craig Ferguson.[32] The film holds a 90% Certified fresh rating on Rotten Tomatoes with 29 reviews.

参考资料[edit]

  1. ^ The Tenant. Box Office Mojo. 
  2. ^ http://www.jpbox-office.com/fichfilm.php?id=8166
  3. ^ Vincent Canby. The Tenant. 纽约时报. 21 June 1976. 
  4. ^ Festival de Cannes: The Tenant. Festival-cannes.com. [2009-05-08]. 
  5. ^ The Tenant. Jpbox-office-com. 
  6. ^ Neil Sinyard, Jack Clayton (Manchester University Press, 2000), p. 212
  7. ^ Meyncke, Amanda Mae. Roman Polanski's Apartment Trilogy Still As Artful As Ever. Film.com. 2 July 2008. 
  8. ^ Thompson, Anne. Rush Hour 3: Ratner Casts Polanski as Sadistic Cop. Variety.com. 25 July 2007. 
  9. ^ A Polanski Guide To Urban Living. Cinemaretro.com. 19 August 2009. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Lippe, Adam. The Tenant, The Regrettable Moment of Sincerity, 21 January 2009
  11. ^ Castle, Robert (2004). Disturbing Movies: or the Flip Side of the Real, Bright Lights Film Journal, 30 April 2004
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Del Valle, David (2010). Wig of a Poet: Un Polanski Rorschach, ACIDEMIC: Journal of Film and Media, 2010
  13. ^ Hanke, Ken (2006). Delicatessen, Mountain Xpress, 26 March 2008
  14. ^ Taunton, Matthew. "Delicatessen, The Tenant and Le Crime de Monsieur Lange", chapter in Taunton's book Fictions Of The City: Class, Culture and Mass Housing in London and Paris (PDF excerpt), Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, p. 37-48
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 Scheib, Richard. THE TENANT (Le Locataire), Moira: Science Fiction, Horror and Fantasy Film Review
  16. ^ Lorefice, Mike (2003). Le Locataire (The Tenant, France/USA - 1976), Raging Bull Movie Reviews, 8 December 2003
  17. ^ Canby, Vincent. The Screen: Roman Polanski's 'The Tenant' Arrives. The New York Times. June 21, 1976, 125 (43,248): 37. 
  18. ^ "Der Titel des Films reicht bis an eine Interpretation heran, die so lauten könnte: Da kam einer in diese wohl geordnete Welt, und man gab ihm die Chance, sich einen Platz zu "mieten". Dieses "Mietverhältnis" aber kann jederzeit gekündigt werden, wenn sich der "Mieter" nicht den festgefügten Verhältnissen anpasst, sie verinnerlicht. So bleibt die Frage, wer hier eigentlich wahnsinnig und wer normal ist, am Schluss fast bedeutungslos. Der Verfolgungswahn des einzelnen reiht sich ein in die Verfolgungsmentalität einer "wohl" geordneten Welt. Niemand kann Trelkovsky wirklich helfen – nicht einmal er selbst. In einer scheinbar aufgeklärten, aber eben auch maßlos abgeklärten Welt mit einer feststehenden Ordnung hat das Individuelle, das subjektive Eigenhaben nur eine Alternative: Unterwerfung und Internalisierung – oder Wahnsinn. Also keine Alternative. Es steht immer vor der Kippe, vor dem Verlust seiner selbst." Behrens, Ulrich. Der Mieter, Filmzentrale
  19. ^ Smuts, Aarons (2002). Sympathetic spectators: Roman Polanski's Le Locataire (The Tenant, 1976), Kinoeye: New Perspectives On European Film, Vol. 2, Issue 3, 4 February 2002
  20. ^ Caputo, Davide (2012). Polanski and Perception: The Psychology of Seeing and the Cinema of Roman Polanski, Intellect Books, 2012, ISBN 1841505528, p. 159
  21. ^ Brayton, Timothy (2007). Apartment house fools, Antagony & Ecstasy, 6 May 2007
  22. ^ Biodrowski, Steve (2009). The Tenant (1976), Cinefantastique, 11 December 2009
  23. ^ Jardine, Dan. Tenant, The, Apollo Guide
  24. ^ "Was passiert im 'Mieter'? Sucht Geisterspuk den armen Trelkovsky heim oder verfällt er schlicht dem Irrsinn? Treibt ihn seine ihm feindlich gesinnte (warum?) Umwelt in einen Freitodversuch oder zerbricht der schüchterne, in sich gekehrte junge Mann an der kalten Realität? Ist Trelkovsky etwa mit Simone Clouche identisch? Oder werden wir gar Zeuge eines Traums, den die sterbende Simone Clouche träumt, und Trelkovsky ist nichts anderes als die Traumgestalt ihrer selbst?" Wollo. Der Mieter, Die Besten Horrorfilme.de
  25. ^ Morris, Brogan (2013). Leeds International Film Festival 2013 Review – The Tenant (1976), Flickering Myth, 18. November 2013
  26. ^ "Und wieder erzählt er auf von sexueller Repression, wobei Trelkovskys Flucht in die Identität Simone Choules in Polanskis erstaunlicher, gänzlich unmanirierter Darstellung als konsequenter Endpunkt aller drei Filme erscheint. Von einer psychopathologischen Fallstudie kann hier anders als vielleicht noch bei Ekel endgültig keine Rede mehr sein: Das Individuum wird aufgelöst und es bleibt nur der Schrecken angesichts des blanken Nichts." Staben, Andreas. Der Mieter, filmstarts.de
  27. ^ Hale, Norman (1976). Review: Tenant, Movietone News, no. 52, October 1976, p. 38-39
  28. ^ http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/the-tenant-1976
  29. ^ http://www.ew.com/article/2012/05/17/cannes-polanski-as-victim-rust-and-bone
  30. ^ http://originaltrilogy.com/topic/The-Tenant-Polanski-1976-BD25-RELEASED/id/16504
  31. ^ http://www.ifi.ie/film/the-tenant/
  32. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Enz6R_Ji0Tg

外部链接[edit]