维基百科:引用維基百科

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引用維基百科

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引用維基百科前的告誡[编辑]

對於任何來源,特別是不為人知的作者,您應該要保持警惕,及如果可能的話,獨立查證維基百科資料的準確性。對於大多數用途,特別是學術用途,維基百科未必是一個可以接受的來源;[1]事實上,有些教授和老師可能會完全抵制以維基百科作為來源的資料。當使用維基百科的資料時请加以查證,這句話尤其正確。

當使用維基百科作為研究計劃的來源時,我們建議您要特別謹慎。維基百科和其他百科全書的正常學術用途是用於取得某問題的一般事實以及蒐集關鍵字、參考文獻和書目指示,但以其本身而言卻不是一個來源。謹記維基百科是一個維基Wiki),意指世界上任何人都可以編輯條目、刪除正確資料或增加錯誤資料,且讀者未必能夠判別這些資料的準確性。

不過,我們亦有信心維基百科能為其涵蓋的大多數主題提供良好的概述。參見Wikipedia:利用維基百科作研究利用維基百科作學術用途的告誡和我們的免責聲明頁,以取得更多資訊。

維基是一個特殊的媒體,且本身並不能遵照慣常的書本引文格式。維基不是紙本文件,所以您需要改為使用電子引文格式。確實的格式將依照您所採用的引文指導而定,但是這裡有一些一般原則需要考慮:

  • 一項特殊的引文工具可協助您的引用。在每項條目的左方,您可以找到名為「引用此文」的連結。點擊後將帶您到一個列出相關資訊的頁面,以及自動以各種格式生成的引文。注意確保引文符合所有條件仍是您的責任。
  • 一般而言,您不應該引用任何維基百科條目的特定作者。維基百科是由眾多作者共同編寫的。不過,如果您真的需要尋找某特定條目的作者名單,您可以檢查頁面歷史。作者只會以IP地址或用戶自行選擇的用戶名列出;您一般不能查證甚至不能猜測他們的真實身份。
  • 您的引文一般應列出條目名稱及「維基百科,自由的百科全書」字樣,就像你會列出文件出版物內的條目。每項條目應視為一個獨立的引文。
  • 多數的引文格式可能會要求您提供完整的條目URL。您可以點擊此頁左方工具箱內的「永久連結」。這會使URL包含一個唯一的識別符,如此您可以將您的參考文獻聯繫到您所參考的條目的確實修訂版本。採用此方法可能或未必適合,視乎您的參考文獻的上文下理。這可顯示您所看到的修訂版本,並忽略在查閱頁面後所做的任何更改。如果想更為簡潔,您可以使用常規的URL,或只是網站的URL(例如 http://zh.wikipedia.org/ 的一項中文條目),因為條目的URL可以從條目標題推斷出來。
  • 該引文格式可能會要求您提供條目修訂版本的完整日期和時間。如果您使用了永久連結功能,以上規定並非必要。不過,最新修訂版本的日期和時間可於每頁頁底找到(於版權告示之上)。

範例[编辑]

以下範例假設了您引用維基百科條目Plagiarism,使用提交於2004年7月22日 10:55 UTC的修訂版本,而且您於2004年8月10日查閱該條目,除非特別註明者。

APA格式[编辑]

APA格式引用,由美國心理學會建議的引用格式:[1]

  • Plagiarism. (2004, July 22). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism

注意在APA第5版格式內,以下的規則適用於參考文獻:

  • 對於參考書籍,包括百科全書、字典和詞彙表,在書籍標題前須加上「In」字。此字不是以斜體顯示,但書籍標題則需要。
  • 書籍標題以大寫顯示,即首字詞、冒號後首字詞和專有名詞用大寫。
  • URL必須連往您所引用的確實頁面。
  • URL後沒有標點符號。
  • 該名詞或條目標題顯示於作者位置內。多字名詞或標題用大寫,即首字詞、冒號後首字詞和專有名詞用大寫。

對於分段文章,適當的內文引文是 ("Plagiarism," 2004) 或 ("Plagiarism," 2004, para. #) ,如果您直接引用該資料。注意 para. # 代碼頁面內的段落編號,即資訊出現的地方。如果該頁面有多個標題,放置子標題和包含在標題的段落編號的做法亦可接受。

例如,直接引用少於40字的適當內文引文是:

"Plagiarism is the use of another person’s work (this could be his or her words, products or ideas) for personal advantage, without proper acknowledgment of the original work" ("Plagiarism," 2004, "Definition," para. 1).

如果該引用資料多於40字,請改為使用塊引用格式。

另一例子,分段文章的適當內文引文是:

Plagiarism is stealing the works of others ("Plagiarism," 2004).

APA Style requires that you provide a separate reference entry for each term you are citing in your paper because 1) you must provide a URL for each term that goes directly to the term, and 2) you must provide the publication date for each term separately. However, if you are discussing the "online encyclopedia" itself, not a term in the encyclopedia, you might need to reference the site itself. The proper citation of Wikipedia, the site, as referenced in APA 5th Edition Style is:

  • Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2004, July 22). FL: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from http://www.wikipedia.org

The in-text citation formation would be (Wikipedia, 2004).

MLA格式[编辑]

MLA格式引用,由現代語言協會建議的引用格式:

  • "Plagiarism." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 10 Aug. 2004. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350>.

Note that MLA style calls for both the date of publication (or its latest update) and the date on which the information was retrieved. According to the most recent edition of the MLA Handbook, there is now information required about any foundation involved. Also note that many schools/institutions slightly change the syntax. Another example:


  • "Plagiarism." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 22 July 2004 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350>.

Be sure to double check the exact syntax your institution requires.

For citation of Wikipedia as a site, use:

MHRA格式[编辑]

MHRA格式引用,由現代人文研究會建議的引用格式:

  • Wikipedia contributors, 'Plagiarism', Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350> [accessed 10 August 2004]

Chicago格式[编辑]

Chicago格式引用:

  • Wikipedia contributors, "Plagiarism," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350 (accessed August 10, 2004).

Note that the Chicago Manual of Style states that "Well-known reference books, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies."

CBE/CSE格式[编辑]

CBE/CSE格式引用,由科學編輯理事會建議的引用格式:

  • Wikipedia contributors. Plagiarism [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; 2004 Jul 22, 10:55 UTC [cited 2004 Aug 10]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350.

Turabian格式[编辑]

The following are examples of how to cite Wikipedia articles according to A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th edition, by Kate L. Turabian (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). ISBN 0226816265 (cloth), ISBN 0226816273 (paper).

Note on Turabian style: Please understand that Turabian does not have rules that cover anything like Wikipedia. These examples are based on "reading between the lines" and assimilating rules from various not-so-similar cases that Turabian does cover. If the party to which you are submitting your paper is particularly strict, you might want to find out if they have their own adaptation of Turabian that would apply in this case. Alternately, you could always consult with the party before the deadline to make sure it's acceptable.

註釋[编辑]

1"Endangered Species," in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia; (Wikimedia Foundation Inc., updated 14 October 2003, 13:19 UTC) [encyclopedia on-line]; available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered Species; Internet; retrieved 24 October 2006.

2Wikipedia contributors, "Marketing."Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing (Accessed June 27,2007)

參考書目[编辑]

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Updated 14 October 2003, 13:19 UTC. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered Species. Internet. Retrieved 5 December 2003.

(According to Turabian 6th edition, ¶9.8, for entries in the bibliography, "the first line of each entry is flush left, and any run over lines are indented five spaces". This presentation does not follow that rule.)

行文插入參考[编辑]

("Plagiarism," Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia)

(Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, s.v. "Plagiarism")

參考名單[编辑]

Plagiarism. 14 October 2003, 13:19 UTC. In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism. Internet. Retrieved 5 December 2003.

(Indenting is like that of the bibliography.)

引用到維基百科[编辑]

The Harvard Journal of Law and Technology has adopted the following format for citations to articles in Wikipedia:

  • [Signal] Wikipedia, [article], http://en.wikipedia/wiki/[article] [(optional other parenthetical)] (as of [date], [time] GMT).

Here is an example:

  • See Wikipedia, Bluebook, http://en.wikipedia/wiki/Bluebook (describing history and application of the Bluebook) (as of Mar. 21, 2006, 20:50 GMT).

This format derives from Rule 18.2 of the 18th edition of the Bluebook, though the date parenthetical differs slightly. The parenthetical here is designed to specify the exact version of the article to which the author is referring, recognizing that articles can and do change often. The date and time used should correspond exactly to the latest version listed in the article's Wikipedia history page that states the proposition for which you are citing it. Use of GMT conforms to the timestamp format used in those history entries (e.g., use 24-hour notation to avoid AM/PM).

BibTeX記錄[编辑]

 @misc{ wiki:###,
   author = "Wikipedia",
   title = "Plagiarism --- {W}ikipedia{,} The Free Encyclopedia",
   year = "2004",
   url = "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350",
   note = "[Online; accessed 22-July-2004]"
 }

When using the LaTeX package url (\usepackage{url} somewhere in the preamble) which tends to give much more nicely formatted web addresses, the following may be preferred:

 @misc{ wiki:###,
   author = "Wikipedia",
   title = "Plagiarism --- {W}ikipedia{,} The Free Encyclopedia",
   year = "2004",
   url = "\url{http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350}",
   note = "[Online; accessed 22-July-2004]"
 }

AMA格式[编辑]

AMA格式引用,由美國醫學協會建議的引用格式:[2]

參見[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Anthropology 333 syllabus from American River College. [2006-02-07]. "Do NOT use Wikipedia or other online or print encyclopedias as a source for your paper."