海鹿科

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Aplysiidae
Aplysia californica.jpg
Aplysia californica, a typical sea hare, shown here releasing a cloud of purple pigment, probably as a reaction to being disturbed.
科學分類 編輯
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
綱: 腹足綱 Gastropoda
目: 海鹿目 Aplysiida
總科: 海鹿總科 Aplysioidea
科: 海鹿科 Aplysiidae
Lamarck, 1809

見內文

異名
  • Aplysiinae Lamarck, 1809 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Dolabriferidae (synonym)
  • Dolabriferinae Pilsbry, 1895 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Notarchinae Mazzarelli, 1893 · accepted, alternate representation

海鹿科(學名:Aplysiidae)是海鹿總科(學名:Aplysioidea,又名海兔超科)之下唯一的一個。與其牠海蛞蝓相比,海鹿的體型相比較大。牠們的頭小[1],有着又長又圓的身體,還有長長的一對檢嗅器英語rhinophore。這些物種都是一些沒有螺殻的「海螺」,一般「海鹿」會用來叫體型相對大很多的物種,而體型較小的會叫作「海兔」,但也有文獻不論大小都稱呼為「海兔」。在這些物種當中,以加州黑海兔Aplysia vaccaria)的體型最大,也是所有腹足綱物種中體型最大的一種,經常在內容農場的「海怪」文章提及。

型態描述[編輯]

Dorsal view of a live Aplysia parvula showing general anatomy of sea hares.

Defenses[編輯]

Mating habits[編輯]

捕食者[編輯]

海鹿科的捕食者包括有海蜘蛛隆頭魚科物種及海龜

分類學[編輯]

2004年的一份研究文獻[5]顯示海鹿科是一個單系群,由兩個支序組成:

  • Aplysiinae
  • Dolabellinae + Dolabriferinae + Notarchinae.

亞科[編輯]

[編輯]

Genera brought into synonymy
  • Aclesia Rang, 1828: synonym of Bursatella Blainville, 1817
  • Aplysiella P. Fischer, 1872: synonym of Petalifera Gray, 1847
  • Busiris Risso, 1826: synonym of Notarchus Cuvier, 1816
  • Laplysia Linnaeus, 1767: synonym of Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767
  • Neaplysia J. G. Cooper, 1863: synonym of Aplysia (Neaplysia) J. G. Cooper, 1863 represented as Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767
  • Phycophila A. Adams, 1861: synonym of Aplysia (Phycophila) A. Adams, 1861 represented as Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767
  • Pruvotaplysia Engel, 1936: synonym of Aplysia (Pruvotaplysia) Engel, 1936 represented as Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767
  • Ramosaclesia Iredale, 1929: synonym of Bursatella Blainville, 1817
  • Siphonotus A. Adams & Reeve, 1850: synonym of Syphonota H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854
  • Tullia Pruvot-Fol, 1933: synonym of Aplysia (Tullia) Pruvot-Fol, 1933 represented as Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767
  • Varria Eales, 1960: synonym of Aplysia (Varria) Eales, 1960 represented as Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767

部分物種[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ 貝科基本解說:台灣Aplysiidae 海鹿科貝類共 8 種. 臺灣貝類資料庫 (中文(繁體)‎). 
  2. ^ Paige, John A. Biology, Metamorphosis and Postlarval Development of Bursatella leachii plei Rang (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Bulletin of Marine Science. January 1988, 42 (1): 65–75. 
  3. ^ Zsilavecz, G. 2007. Nudibranchs of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay. ISBN 0-620-38054-3
  4. ^ Kandel E. R., Schwartz J. H. & Jessell T. M. (2000). Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed., New York, McGraw-Hill 180 pp.
  5. ^ Klussmann‐Kolb, A. Phylogeny of the Aplysiidae (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with new aspects of the evolution of seahares. Zoologica Scripta. 2004, 33 (5): 439–462. doi:10.1111/j.0300-3256.2004.00158.x. 
  6. ^ Lamarck, J.B. Philosophize zoologique. Paris: Dentu. 1809: 428. 
  7. ^ Bouchet, P. & J.P. Rocroi. Corrections of Authorship and date for gastropod (Mollusca) family-group names placed on the Official List and Official Index. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 2001, 58 (3): 170–178. 
  8. ^ Notes on cephalaspideans. Opisthobranch. 1984, 16 (3): 26. 

延伸閱讀[編輯]

  • Kandel, E.R. (1979) Behavioural Biology of Aplysia. San Francisco, W.H.Freeman & Co. 463pp.
  • Costello, M.J.; Emblow, C.; White, R. (Ed.). (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50. Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle: Paris, France. ISBN 2-85653-538-0. 463 pp.

外部連結[編輯]