芭蕾舞

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女芭蕾舞演員穿的腳尖舞鞋

芭蕾舞是一種表演舞蹈,發源於十五世紀,即義大利文藝復興時期的宮廷。隨後它在法國和俄羅斯發展成表演舞蹈。它是一種廣泛流傳,且具高度技術性的舞蹈,擁有法文專屬術語。它在全球均具影響力,更定義了很多其他舞蹈的基礎技巧。芭蕾舞需要長時間學習,在世界各地都有學校教授,並用自身文化繼續把它發展下去。

芭蕾舞也可以是指一齣含編舞及音樂的芭蕾舞劇。知名例子如胡桃鉗,就是一齣最先由馬利烏斯·皮提帕及劉·伊凡諾夫編舞、柴可夫斯基作曲的兩幕芭蕾舞劇,而這些芭蕾舞劇都是由受過專業訓練的藝人編舞及演出。很多古典芭蕾舞劇都是由古典音樂伴奏,配以華麗的戲服及舞台布景的。但是,一些由近代藝人如喬治巴蘭欽創作的舞劇已經沒有遵隨以上的慣例。

芭蕾是一種輕盈,舒緩,優雅的舞蹈。「芭蕾」起源於義大利,興盛於法國,其部分手勢可追溯至古埃及的祭祀舞蹈。「芭蕾」為法語ballet」的譯音,它的詞源則是義大利語的「balletto」,為ballo的指小詞,ballo 意為「舞蹈」。

像西方戲劇一樣,早期芭蕾舞是禁止女性參與演出的,所有女角都由男演員反串。但後來此規例獲得放寬,再加上足尖的引入,使芭蕾舞壇成了女性的天下。十八世紀有人便將長裙改短,又將鞋跟去掉,改穿平底軟鞋。「浪漫芭蕾」時期,最有名的兩個舞劇是「仙女」和「吉賽兒」,這時出現了芭蕾硬鞋。柴可夫斯基是芭蕾舞劇音樂創作大師,他創作了「睡美人」、「胡桃鉗」和「天鵝湖」等偉大的古典芭蕾舞劇。

詞源[編輯]

"Ballet"一詞最初源自希臘語,"βαλλίζω" (ballizo),意指"跳舞"、"跳躍"。[1] [2],後來演變成 拉丁語中"Ballo"和"Ballare",意指"跳舞"。[2][3]後來再次演變,出現義大利語"Ballo",即"跳舞"。法語中的"Ballet"最初即來自"Ballo"的指小詞"Balletto",並於約1630年外借為英語詞彙。

歷史[編輯]

芭蕾舞的歷史起源自十五至十六世紀,義大利文藝復興時代的宮廷。它迅速地傳到了法國王后凱瑟琳·德·麥地奇的宮廷,並展開了進一步的發展。現今的古典芭蕾舞就是由法國國王路易十四創立,他青年時也曾是一名活躍的芭蕾舞蹈員,表演過由舞者兼編舞家波襄及作曲家尚-巴迪斯堤·盧利創作的舞劇。1661年,路易十四創立了皇家舞蹈學院,專責創立芭蕾舞的舞步標準及承認舞蹈教師的資格。1672年,路易十四退役並任命盧利為巴黎歌劇院的總監,並發展出第一支專業芭蕾舞團,即巴黎歌劇院芭蕾舞團。芭蕾舞在法國的發展令不少芭蕾舞術語以法語為主。在未發明前舞台之前,早期的芭蕾舞劇均在大型廳室上演,觀眾都坐在三面環繞舞台的排座上觀賞。

雖然讓·喬治·諾維爾在十八世紀對芭蕾舞提出了一些重大改革,但在1830年後,芭蕾舞在法國步入了衰落。它繼續在丹麥、義大利和俄羅斯發揚光大,並在一戰前夕由謝爾蓋·季亞格希列夫創立的俄羅斯芭蕾舞團重新引入西歐,最終影響全世界的芭蕾舞發展。不少在俄羅斯受訓的舞蹈家為逃避因十月革命所導致的動蕩飢荒而加入該團,最終把不少俄羅斯創新的舞蹈風格及編舞重新介紹到自己的原藉。

在二十世紀,芭蕾舞對許多劇院舞蹈有重大的影響。在美國,編舞家喬治巴蘭欽就創立了新古典主義芭蕾舞。隨後德國的威廉‧佛塞等人則發展出當代芭蕾舞及後結構主義芭蕾舞。芭蕾舞同時亦分支出現代舞,並在美國和德國開展了現代主義者的運動。 [4]

形式[編輯]

風格流派[編輯]

Stylistic variations have emerged and evolved since the Italian Renaissance. Early, classical variations are primarily associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, and Italian ballet. Later variations, such as contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet, incorporate both classical ballet and non-traditional technique and movement. Perhaps the most widely known and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet (or Ballet blanc), a classical style that focuses on female dancers and features pointe work, flowing and precise movements, and often presents the female dancers in traditional, short white tutus. Romantic ballet[edit] Main article: Romantic ballet Romantic ballet is defined by an era during the early to mid 19th century (the romantic era) in which ballets featured themes that emphasized intense emotion as a source of aesthetic experience. The plots of many romantic ballets revolved around spirit women — sylphs, wilis, and ghosts — who enslaved the hearts and senses of mortal men. The 1827 ballet La Sylphide is widely considered to be the first, and the 1870 ballet Coppélia is considered to be the last work of romantic ballet. Classical ballet[edit] Main article: Classical ballet

Scene from act 4 of Swan Lake, Vienna State Opera, 2004

Harlequin and Columbina from the mime theater at Tivoli Gardens, Copenhagen, Denmark Classical ballet is based on traditional ballet technique and vocabulary. There are different styles of classical ballet that are related to their areas of origin, such as French ballet, Italian ballet and Russian ballet. Several of the classical ballet styles are associated with specific training methods, which are typically named after their creators. For example, the Cecchetti method is named after its creator, Italian dancer Enrico Cecchetti and the Vaganova method is named after Russian ballerina Agrippina Vaganova. Neoclassical ballet[edit] Main article: Neoclassical ballet Neoclassical ballet is a style that utilizes classical ballet technique and vocabulary, but deviates from classical ballet in its use of the abstract. In Neo-Classical Ballet, there often is no clear plot, costumes or scenery. Music choice can be diverse and will often include music that is also neo-classical (e.g. Stravinsky, Webern). Neo- Classical ballet opens up the use of space to multiple possibilities, as the elimination of the necessity of formalities and story telling allows far more possibilities for architecture and design in choreography. Tim Scholl, author of From Petipa to Balanchine, considers George Balanchine's Apollo in 1928 to be the first neoclassical ballet. Apollo represented a return to form in response to Sergei Diaghilev's abstract ballets.[clarification needed] Balanchine worked with modern dance choreographer Martha Graham, expanding his exposure to modern techniques and ideas, and he brought modern dancers into his company (New York City Ballet) such as Paul Taylor, who in 1959 performed in Balanchine's Episodes. While Balanchine is widely considered the face of Neo-Classical Ballet, there were others who made significant contributions to the development of the style. Fredrick Ashton’sSymphonic Dances (1946) is a seminal work for the choreographer, and is a work staged in white tunics, abstract and minimal set design with no discernable plot. Set to César Franck’sscore of the same title, it is a pure-dance interpretation of the score in a manner that exemplifies the Ashton style. Another form, Modern Ballet, also emerged as an offshoot of neo-classicism. Among the innovators in this form were Glen Tetley, Robert Joffrey and Gerald Arpino. While difficult to parse modern ballet from neo-classicism, the work of these choreographers favored a greater athleticism that departed from the delicacy of ballet. The physicality was more daring, with mood, subject matter and music more intense. An example of this would be Joffrey's Astarte (1967), which featured a rock score and sexual overtones in the choreography. Contemporary ballet[edit] Main article: Contemporary ballet

A contemporary ballet leap performed with modern, non-classical form Contemporary ballet is a form of dance that opens up the doors to for any style to influence a work made utilizing ballet technique. Contemporary Ballet can take on a wide variety of aesthetics, incorporating pedestrian, modern, jazz, or ethnic forms, so long as a the roots of classical ballet are apparent. It allows for open-ended exploration and experimentation, but a good way to determine if a work is contemporary ballet, as opposed to contemporary dance, is to ask the question, is ballet training needed to perform this as it was intended?. Again, it can sometimes be difficult to parse this form from neo-classical or modern ballet. Some prime examples of this would be Twyla Tharp’sDeuce Coupe (1973) for the Joffrey Ballet. In this ballet, Tharp juxtaposed a ballerina clad in white who makes her way through the lexicon of ballet steps, while dancers clad in street clothes, sometimes in pointe shoes, socks or sneakers, dance in wide range of styles to the music of the Beach Boys. In the 1980s William Forsythe made substantial innovations[according to whom?] in contemporary ballet with a range of works, including In the Middle Somewhat Elevated (1987). This work featured a robust athleticism and electric score. Forsythe took classical ballet vocabulary and exaggerated it, making the dancers move bigger, faster and in more directions than before. Many contemporary ballet concepts come from the ideas and innovations of 20th-century modern dance, including floor work and turn-in of the legs. This ballet style is often performed barefoot. Contemporary ballets may include mime and acting, and are usually set to music (typically orchestral but occasionally vocal). George Balanchine, the founding director of the New York City Ballet, is considered[by whom?] to have been a pioneer of contemporary ballet because of his pioneering development of neoclassical ballet. Another early contemporary ballet choreographer, Twyla Tharp, choreographed Push Comes To Shove for the American Ballet Theatre in 1976, and in 1986 created In The Upper Room for her own company. Both of these pieces were considered innovative for their melding of distinctly modern movements with the use of pointe shoes and classically trained dancers. Today there are many contemporary ballet companies and choreographers. These include Alonzo King and his company LINES Ballet; Matthew Bourne and his company New Adventures; Complexions Contemporary Ballet; Nacho Duato and his Compañia Nacional de Danza; William Forsythe and The Forsythe Company; and Jiří Kylián of the Nederlands Dans Theater. Traditionally "classical" companies, such as the Kirov Ballet and the Paris Opera Ballet, also regularly perform contemporary works. The term ballet has evolved to include all forms associated with it. Someone training as a ballet dancer will now be expected to perform neo-classical, modern and contemporary work. A ballet dancer is expected to be able to be stately and regal for classical work, free and lyrical in neo-classical work, and unassuming, harsh or pedestrian for modern and contemporary work. The art form has grown vertically and horizontally and can sometimes be blurred with other dance forms, but although sometimes hidden (intentionally or not), the element of ballet technique will always be apparent.[citation needed]

  • 早期芭蕾
  • 宮廷芭蕾
  • 古典芭蕾(跳古典芭蕾相比於浪漫芭蕾較容易,因為舞者只需要面帶微笑,熟記舞步和擁有自信。就算在跳錯舞步之下也必須擁有過人的自信不停下的跳下去)
  • 浪漫芭蕾(有爭議認為是古典芭蕾中的浪漫派)
  • 仿古芭蕾
  • 現代芭蕾[5]

技術流派[編輯]

芭蕾舞裙[編輯]

由幾層薄紗打褶重疊而成,

髮式[編輯]

古典芭蕾舞女一般把長頭髮挽成一個,這樣脖子和頭部的線條就會顯得更清晰,也能更做出方便旋轉的動作。

術語[編輯]

  1. 巴特芒 Battement 腿部動作的總稱
  2. 巴特芒湯糾 Battement tendu 擦地
  3. 得米普力也 Demi plie 半蹲
  4. 哥讓得普力也 Grand plie 大蹲
  5. 巴特芒湯糾日代 Battement tendu jeté 小踢腿
  6. 讓德項伯 Rond de jambe 用腿劃圈
  7. 阿太爾 A terre 地面
  8. 巴特芒風糾 Battement fondu 單腿蹲
  9. 古得彼也 Cou-de-pied 動作腳位於主力腳腳腕
  10. 巴特芒芙拉貝 Battement frappé 小彈腿
  11. 阿大糾 Adagio 慢板,多指控制類動作
  12. 昂萊爾 En l'air 空中
  13. 哥讓得巴特芒日代 Grand battement jeté 大踢腿
  14. 日了畏 Releve 上升,多指半腳尖,腳尖動作
  15. 昂法斯 En face 正面
  16. 埃撲魯芒 Epaulement 頭和肩的動作
  17. 克羅賽 Croise 交叉
  18. 埃法賽 Effacé 敝開
  19. 阿拉貝斯克 Arabesque 迎風展翅舞姿
  20. 埃嘎得(前) Ecarté 攀峰式
  21. 埃嘎得(後) Ecarté 俯望式
  22. 阿提丟 Attitude 鶴立式舞姿
  23. 湯里也 Temps lié 移重心

舞鞋——軟底鞋[編輯]

用柔軟的薄皮革或帆布製成,以較緊的包住腳為宜。男演員穿標準舞鞋,個別男演員在表演特定人物時也使用足尖鞋足尖鞋用以支撐女演員長久地站立和腳尖行走、跑和跳。足尖鞋是在普通舞鞋的鞋尖部分增墊棉花、松香或輕質木楦,並在鞋尖上用線縫衲多次而成。對提高和豐富女子舞蹈的技巧和表現力,塑造浪漫主義芭蕾的輕盈欲飛的仙女和精靈的形象有很大幫助。

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ Chantrell, Glynnis (2002). The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Word Histories. New York: Berkley Books. ISBN 0-425-19098-6.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "A Greek-English Lexicon". Perseus Digital Library.
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Online Etymology Dictionary".
  4. ^ Wulff, Helena (1998). Ballet Across Borders: Career and Culture in the World of Dancers. Oxford: Berg. p. 44. ISBN 1-85973-998-9.
  5. ^ 芭蕾舞的風格流派簡介

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參看[編輯]

外部連結[編輯]