弗林效应

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索

弗林效应(Flynn effect)指智商测试的结果逐年增加的现象。

弗林效应是以James R. Flynn命名的。最早提出這現象的人是Richard Lynn。在1982年的一期《自然》內,他提出了美國人做智力測驗的成績越來越好。James Flynn在1984年和1987年指出,這個現象具長期性、明顯、在不少發達國家也有。 [1][2]

可能原因[编辑]

  • 生物學因素:
  • 社會學因素:
    • 較多人得到教育[4]
    • 社會複雜度提高:當社會更複雜,人們接受的刺激較多。[5]
  • 人們更熟習選擇題[6]
  • 如果受試者曾經做過類似的題目,第二次得的分數平均會高5或6點。不過,這個因素影響的程度始終是有上限的。[4]
  • 電腦、智慧型手機及圖形使用者界面普及,人們在操作電腦及智慧型手機的過程中,更熟悉智商測驗的部分題目。

参考[编辑]

  1. ^ Flynn, J. R. (1984). The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 29-51.
  2. ^ Flynn, J. R. (1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 171-191.
  3. ^ "Changes in vault dimensions must occur by early childhood because of the early development of the vault." Secular change in craniofacial morphology "During the 125 years under consideration, cranial vaults have become markedly higher, somewhat narrower, with narrower faces. The changes in cranial morphology are probably in large part due to changes in growth at the cranial base due to improved environmental conditions. The changes are likely a combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic changes over this period." Cranial change in Americans: 1850-1975.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Rising Scores on Intelligence Test Neisser, U. (1997). American Scientist, 85, 440-447.
  5. ^ Mingroni, M.A. (2004). "The secular rise in IQ: Giving heterosis a closer look". Intelligence 32: 65–83.
  6. ^ (Ulric Neisser et al 1998) [1]