殖民地学院列表

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索

殖民地学院是指建立于十三个殖民地,建校时间早于美国建国的九所高等教育机构。其中七所现今为常春藤盟校成员,分别为哈佛大学耶鲁大学普林斯顿大学宾夕法尼亚大学哥伦比亚大学布朗大学达特茅斯学院(另一所盟校康奈尔大学创建于1865年);另外两所不是常春藤盟校成员的威廉与玛丽学院罗格斯大学均为公立大学威廉与玛丽学院在1693年建校是为私立学院,美国内战后接受了部分来自州政府的支持,1906年成为公立大学。罗格斯大学在第二次世界大战之后成为新泽西州的州立大学。

九所殖民地大学[编辑]

其中七所一开始即为独立的学院存在。达特茅斯学院在1768年以莫尔的慈善学校的一个机构开始运行,莫尔的慈善学校是由达特茅斯学院的创建人Eleazar Wheelock在1754年创建。达特茅斯学院认可它的历史追溯自1769年,即它获得学院宪章的时候。宾夕法尼亚大学1751年创校时叫费城科学院,1755年获得学院宪章后成立了费城学院,开始了它的高等教育历史。

学院名称 (当前名称(如果当前名称与建校时不同适用)) 殖民地州 建校时间 获得宪章时间 第一次授予学位 宗教影响 是否为常春藤盟校
New College[nb 1]
(哈佛大学)
麻塞诸萨湾殖民地 1636 1650 1642 (1642) 清教徒 (Congregational) Yes
威廉与玛丽学院 弗吉尼亚殖民地及领地 1693[nb 2] 1693 英国国教[nb 3] No
Collegiate School
(耶鲁大学)
康涅狄格殖民地 1701 1701 清教徒 (Congregational) Yes
College of New Jersey
(普林斯顿大学)
新泽西省 1746 1746 1747 (1748) 长老宗 但官方无宗教影响 Yes
College of Philadelphia
(宾夕法尼亚大学)
宾夕法尼省 1740[nb 4] 1755 1755 (1757) 英国国教 but officially nonsectarian[7][nb 5] Yes
King's College
(哥伦比亚大学)
纽约省 1754 1754 英国国教 有宗教自由政策。[12] Yes
Rhode Island College[13] (chartered as the College or University in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, in New England, in America[14])
(布朗大学)
得岛与普洛威顿斯种植园殖民地 1764 1764 浸礼会 (录取时无宗教要求)[nb 6] Yes
Queen's College
(罗格斯大学)
新泽西省 1766 1766 1771 (1774) 荷兰革新教会 No
达特茅斯学院 新罕布什尔州 1769 1769 1768 (1771)[nb 7] 清教徒 Yes

其它建立于殖民地时代的教育机构[编辑]

一些学院或大学的历史可以追溯到殖民地时代的科学院或者学校,但是它们获得学院宪章及颁发学位权利晚于1776年美国建国,所以通常不被视为殖民地学院。

注釋[编辑]

  1. ^ The institution was founded in 1636 by a vote of the legislature of the colony to provide money for "a school or college" at Newtowne (the present Cambridge.) Nothing further was done about actually creating a school until 1638, when in his will John Harvard bequeathed money and books to the yet-uncreated college. Construction began shortly thereafter on a school that was given the name of its first benefactor.
  2. ^ The College of William & Mary sometimes asserts a connection with an attempt to found a "University of Henrico" at Henricopolis (also known as Henricus) in the Colony of Virginia, which received a charter in 1618; but only a small school for Native Americans had begun operation by 1622, when the town was destroyed in a Native American raid. A page on their website says "The College of William & Mary [...] was the first college planned for the United States. Its roots go back to the College proposed at Henrico in 1619." However, it immediately proceeds to note that "The College is second only to Harvard University in actual operation."[1] Since William & Mary describes itself as "America's second-oldest college" and gives its year of founding as 1693, it does not seem to be suggesting institutional continuity with the University of Henrico, rather, W&M is providing historical perspective. However, this depends upon the orientation and competitiveness of the administration at any given time, for instance, when a Harvard grad is President, Wm & M is presented as "second college", but when Va grad is president, it is "the first college in its roots". (This original college has been revived , in 1992, as "Henricus Colledge (1619), America's 1st College.".[2] William & Mary has a published list of its early graduates by its Swem Library.
  3. ^ In the wake of the American Civil War, the College ceased to enroll students in 1882 due to attendant financial pressures. Students returned in 1888 after the Commonwealth of Virginia authorized $10,000 for it to become a "State normal" school for men. In 1906 it became a public, non-sectarian school with the college's royal charter still in effect, except were superseded by state or federal laws.
  4. ^ There is some disagreement about Penn's date of founding as the university has never used its legal charter date for this purpose and, in addition, took the unusual step of changing its official founding date approximately 150 years after the fact. The first meeting of the founding trustees of the secondary school which eventually became the University of Pennsylvania took place in November 1749. Secondary instruction for boys at the Academy of Philadelphia began in August 1751. Undergraduate education for men began after a collegiate charter for the College of Philadelphia was granted in 1755. Penn considered 1749 to be its founding date for more than a century until, in 1895, elite universities in the United States agreed that formal academic processions would place visiting dignitaries and other officials in the order of their institution's founding dates. Four years later in 1899, Penn's board of trustees voted to retroactively revise the university's founding date from 1749 to 1740 in order to become older than Princeton, which had been chartered in 1746. The premise for this revised founding date was the fact that the Academy of Phildelphia purchased the building and assumed the educational mandate of the Church and Charitable School in the Province of Pennsylvania. This was part of a 1740 project that had been planned to comprise both a church and school though, due to insufficient funding, only the church was built and even it was never put into use. The dormant church building was conveyed to the Academy of Philadelphia in 1750.[3][4][5] To further complicate the comparison of founding dates, Princeton University has historical ties to an older college. Five of the twelve members of Princeton's first board of trustees were very closely associated with a "Log College" operated by Presbyterian minister William Tennent and his son Gilbert in Bucks County, Pennsylvania from 1726 until 1746.[6] Because the College of New Jersey and the Log College shared the same religious affiliation (a moderate element within the "New Side" or "New Light" wing of the Presbyterian Church) and there was a considerable overlap in their boards of trustees, some historians suggest that there is sufficient connection between this school and the College of New Jersey which would enable Princeton to claim a founding date of 1726. However, Princeton does not officially do so and a university historian says that the "facts do not warrant" such a claim.[6] [來源請求]
  5. ^ Penn's website, like other sources, makes an important point of Penn's heritage being nonsectarian, associated with Benjamin Franklin and the Academy of Philadelphia's nonsectarian board of trustees: "The goal of Franklin's nonsectarian, practical plan would be the education of a business and governing class rather than of clergymen.".[8] Jencks and Riesman (2001) write: "The Anglicans who founded the University of Pennsylvania, however, were evidently anxious not to alienate Philadelphia's Quakers, and they made their new college officially nonsectarian." Franklin himself was a self-described "thorough Deist." Starting in 1751, the same trustees also operated a Charity School for Boys, whose curriculum combined "general principles of Christianity" with practical instruction leading toward careers in business and the "mechanical arts",[9] and thus might be described as "non-denominational Christian." The charity school was originally planned and a trust was organized on paper in 1740 by followers of travelling evangelist George Whitefield. The school was to have operated inside a church supported by the same group of adherents. But the organizers ran short of financing and, although the frame of the building was raised, the interior was left unfinished. The founders of the Academy of Philadelphia purchased the unused building in 1750 for their new venture and, in the process, assumed the original trust. Since 1899, Penn has claimed a founding date of 1740, based on the organizational date of the charity school and the premise that it had institutional identity with the Academy of Philadelphia. Whitefield was a firebrand Methodist associated with the Great Awakening; since the Methodists did not formally break from the Church of England until 1784, Whitefield in 1740 would be labelled Episcopalian, and in fact Brown University, emphasizing its own pioneering nonsectarianism, refers to Penn's origin as "Episcopalian" [10]). Penn is sometimes assumed to have Quaker ties (its athletic teams are called "Quakers," and the cross-registration alliance between Penn, Haverford, Swarthmore and Bryn Mawr is known as the "Quaker Consortium.") But Penn's website does not assert any formal affiliation with Quakerism, historic or otherwise, and Haverford College implicitly asserts a non-Quaker origin for Penn when it states that "Founded in 1833, Haverford is the oldest institution of higher learning with Quaker roots in North America."[11]
  6. ^ Brown's website characterizes it as "the Baptist answer to Congregationalist Yale and Harvard; Presbyterian Princeton; and Episcopalian Penn and Columbia," but adds that at the time it was "the only one that welcomed students of all religious persuasions."[10] Brown's charter stated that "into this liberal and catholic institution shall never be admitted any religious tests, but on the contrary, all the members hereof shall forever enjoy full, free, absolute, and uninterrupted liberty of conscience." The charter called for twenty-two of the thirty-six trustees to be Baptists, but required that the remainder consist of "five Friends, four Congregationalists, and five Episcopalians"[15]
  7. ^ Dartmouth College began operating during 1768 as the collegiate department of Moor's School (1754) in Columbia, Connecticut. The collegiate department was being described in writing as "Dartmouth College" by January of 1769, when the Township of Hanover, New Hampshire voted to offer it a grant of land. The institution received a royal charter on December 13, 1769 and its students moved from Columbia to Hanover during October 1770. The first degrees were awarded in August 1771. Queen's College, although granted a charter earlier, began operation during 1771, after Dartmouth College began awarding degrees.

参考来源[编辑]

  1. ^ [1][失效連結]
  2. ^ The College of William & Mary. William & Mary - About. Wm.edu. [February 19, 2012]. 
  3. ^ Table of Contents, Penn History, University of Pennsylvania University Archives. Archives.upenn.edu. [February 19, 2012]. 
  4. ^ Gazette: Building Penn's Brand (Sept/Oct 2002). Upenn.edu. [February 19, 2012]. 
  5. ^ Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library : FAQ Princeton University vs. University of Pennsylvania: Which is the older institution?. Princeton.edu. November 6, 2007 [February 19, 2012]. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Log College. Etcweb1.princeton.edu. [February 19, 2012]. 
  7. ^ Jencks, Christopher; David Riesman. The Academic Revolution. Transaction Publishers. 2001. ISBN 0-7658-0115-9.  pp. 314–5, " "The Anglicans who founded the University of Pennsylvania, however, were evidently anxious not to alienate Philadelphia's Quakers, and they made their new college officially nonsectarian."
  8. ^ Overview of holdings, University Archives, University of Pennsylvania University Archives. Archives.upenn.edu. [February 19, 2012]. 
  9. ^ The Charity School in the 18th century, University of Pennsylvania University Archives. Archives.upenn.edu. [February 19, 2012]. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Brown University. Welcome to the Office of College Admission | Undergraduate Admission. Brown.edu. [February 19, 2012]. 
  11. ^ About Haverford College. Haverford.edu. [February 19, 2012]. 
  12. ^ A Brief History of Columbia, Columbia University. Referenced 05.10.2011
  13. ^ Providence. The Encyclopædia Britannica 22 11. 511. "...and although still under its original charter was known for the first forty years as Rhode Island College." 
  14. ^ http://www.brown.edu/Administration/Corporation/downloads/charter-of-brown-university.pdf
  15. ^ PROVIDENCE - Online Information article about PROVIDENCE. Encyclopedia.jrank.org. [February 19, 2012].