常春藤盟校

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常春藤盟校
常春藤
数据
成立于 1954年
成员数 8
所在国 美国
大学类型 私立
总部 新泽西州普林斯顿
别名 Ancient Eight
执行主席 Jeffrey H. Orleans
常春藤盟校分佈圖

常春藤盟校常春藤聯盟Ivy League)成立于1954年,是由美國東北部地区的8所大学組成的體育賽事聯盟。這8所學校有著許多共同的特點:它們都是美國名校、也是美国生產最多羅德獎學金得主的大學聯盟。此外它們也是美國歷史悠久的大學:8所學校中的7所是在英國殖民時期建立的。常春藤盟校包括:布朗大學哥倫比亞大學康奈尔大学達特茅斯學院哈佛大學賓州大學普林斯頓大學耶魯大學

所有的常春藤盟校都是私立大學,和公立大学一样,它們同时接受聯邦政府資助和私人捐赠,用于學術研究。例如常春藤之一的康乃爾大學就有4所學院是完全由政府支持的。由于美国公立大学享有联邦政府的巨额拨款[1],私立大学的财政支出和研究经费要低于公立大学。[2]

成員[编辑]

八所常春藤盟校是(以下依英文首字母排序):

历史[编辑]

各自成立年代[编辑]

学院名称 成立年代 创校宗教派系
哈佛大学[3] 1636创立之初名为新学院 加尔文主义(主要是公理会清教徒;也有少部分一神论派的)
耶鲁大学 1701创立之初名为 学院学校 加尔文主义公理教会
宾夕法尼亚大学 1740创立之初"费城教会慈善学院" (Church and Charity School of Philadelphia)[4] 无宗派[5]但是由英國聖公會成员建立[6]
普林斯顿大学 1746名为 新泽西学院 无宗派,但是由加尔文主义徒创建(长老教会[7]
哥伦比亚大学 1754名为 国王学院 英國聖公會创立
布朗大学 1764名为 英属罗德岛和普洛文德斯殖民地学院 浸信會,但是成立章程写明不从事宗教活动并且信仰自由[8]
达特茅斯学院 1769 加尔文主义公理教会
康奈尔大学 1865 无宗派
备注:成立日期和宗教联系都是根据各大学校方资料搜集。由于学校内部变迁过程复杂,很难有明确说法。现在各常青藤大学均宣传和宗教无关

常春藤聯盟最早指的是非正式的大學美式足球賽事,起源於1900年,當年耶魯大學捧得首個冠軍。多年來美國陸軍学院(西点军校)和空軍学院也曾參加過常春藤的美式足球比賽,但是在聯盟正式成立前不久退出。

称谓的源起[编辑]

1936年,体育专栏作家John Kieran就注意到哈佛大学普林斯顿大学耶鲁大学哥伦比亚大学康奈尔大学达特茅斯学院的校刊学生编辑们在提倡建立一个顶级学院的体育竞赛协会,以代表社会精英群体。1937年紐約的《先驅論壇報》首次用長在牆上的常春藤的比喻來形容這些參加美式足球比賽的學校;1945年8所大學的體育教練們簽署了首個常春藤協議,為8支參賽的美式足球隊設立了學術財政運動標準。1954年這項協議被擴展到其他所有運動,該年也被認為是常春藤聯盟正式成立的年份。

在此称谓之前[编辑]

八所常青藤学校中有七所的成立时间早于美国独立战争;另外一所康奈尔大学是在南北内战结束后很短时间内建立的。前七所学校几乎是美国东海岸和中部殖民地的主要高等教育的人才贡献学校;几乎其他之后建立的学校都是由他们七所学校早期的教员和董事会出来建立;当然也有一部分英国的毕业生和学者,主要来自剑桥大学牛津大学相對较少,也有爱丁堡大学及其他学校。美国仅次于最早的哈佛,第二所建立的威廉和玛丽大学就是由爱丁堡大学的毕业生建立的。1766年建立的新泽西州立大学(罗格斯大学)创始人几乎全是常青藤毕业生。现在美国西海岸最好的斯坦福大学建校之初的教员和董事会则几乎全是康奈尔大学教员,包括其第一任校长David Starr Jordan。而美国西海岸最著名的加州大学系统的主要创始人則都是来自耶鲁大学,因此就连第一所学校的主色系都是耶鲁的代表色蓝色再加上加州闻名的金色.[9]

作为同一个学术标准集团,常青藤联盟几乎拥有一致的新教徒“语调”。殖民时期纽约的英格兰教会国王学院在独立战争中分裂,并被改革为无宗派的哥伦比亚大学。在19世纪早期,尽管新教徒的卡尔文派牧师都是由宗教团体培养的,但是每个常青藤学校仍然有很强的宗教控制成分,比如每个学校都强制的礼拜活动一直延续到20世纪才终止。滨州大学和布朗大学虽然建立之初是以非宗教学校建立的,但是比如布朗的董事会却是22个浸信會教徒、5个貴格教徒、4个公理教徒和5个圣公会教徒。唯一只有康奈尔保持了非宗教的独立性,即便如此,校园内的多个教堂也是主要建筑。

「常青藤联盟」因此也像白人盎格魯-撒克遜新教徒这种称谓一样,成了一种精英阶层的代名詞。不过,其中的康奈尔大学一直在平等方面走在前列,康奈尔是美国第一批明确在录取标准中反对种族和性别歧视,并且是第一批从建校就接收少数民族和女性的学校,直到现在仍然是平等方面的楷模。直到19世纪60年代,除了康奈尔大学以外,其他学校都是仅招收男性学员的,最晚的哥伦比亚在1983才开始和女性大学联合办学引入了女性。常人对于这种称谓的感觉[10]最早可以追溯到1935年.[11]小说[12]和回忆录[13]中反过来又加强了常人的对于其白人精英的感觉;尽管不是对每个学校都适用。

二战后,这些常青藤学校开始逐渐放松了对于学员招收的(人种和性别)标准。他们虽然有美国最好的教员,最早的一批博士教授,但是他们逐渐发现他们不可能同时是世界一流的研究机构和蝉联美国大学运动榜首;并且部分学校还经历了所有其他主要赛事一样的“丑闻”。[14]学校开始分别招收体育特长生和研究性学生。

捐赠[编辑]

由於其悠久的歷史和所培養出的精英人材,常春藤盟校获得校友大量的私人捐款,8所常春藤盟校收到的捐款總值都超過10億美元。其中哈佛大學的捐款總額達到193億美元,是全球获得私人捐赠最多的大學;耶魯大學列第二,捐款總額也達到110億美元。

外部連結[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ University of Washington is the largest recipient of federal research funding among public universities and second among all public and private universities in the country, a position that the university has held each year since 1974.University of Washington(2008,PDF), Annual Report Of Awards And Expenditures Related To Research, Training, Fellowships, and Other Sponsored Programs, University of Washington, http://www.washington.edu/research/.SITEPARTS/.documents/.reportsAnnual/06Annual_Report_-_Fiscal_Year_2007.pdf
  2. ^ The university of MIchigan manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States, totaling about $1 billion in 2009. a b c "Annual Report on Research and Scholarship FY2009 Financial Summary" (PDF). University of Michigan Office of the Vice President for Research. January 21, 2010. http://research.umich.edu/content/2010/01/fy09-financial-report.pdf. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  3. ^ The institution, though founded in 1636, did not receive its name until 1639. It was nameless for its first two years
  4. ^ See University of Pennsylvania for details the circumstances of Penn's origin. Penn's self-stated founding date of 1740 is a matter of longstanding controversy between Penn and Princeton boosters.
  5. ^ Penn's website, like other sources, makes an important point of Penn's heritage being nonsectarian, associated with Benjamin Franklin and the Academy of Philadelphia's nonsectarian board of trustees: "The goal of Franklin's nonsectarian, practical plan would be the education of a business and governing class rather than of clergymen."[1]. Jencks and Riesman(2001)write "The Anglicans who founded the University of Pennsylvania, however, were evidently anxious not to alienate Philadelphia's Quakers, and they made their new college officially nonsectarian." Franklin himself was a self-described "thorough Deist." In Franklin's 1749 founding Proposals relating to the education of youth in Pensilvania(page images), religion is not mentioned directly as a subject of study, but he states in a footnote that the study of "History will also afford frequent Opportunities of showing the Necessity of a Publick Religion, from its Usefulness to the Publick; the Advantage of a Religious Character among private Persons; the Mischiefs of Superstition, &c. and the Excellency of the CHRISTIAN RELIGION above all others antient or modern." Starting in 1751, the same trustees also operated a Charity School for Boys, whose curriculum combined "general principles of Christianity" with practical instruction leading toward careers in business and the "mechanical arts." [2], and thus might be described as "non-denominational Christian." The charity school was originally planned, and chartered on paper, in 1740, by followers of evangelist George Whitefield, but was not built and did not operate until the charter was assumed by the Academy of Philadelphia in 1751. Since 1895, Penn has claimed a founding date of 1740, based on the charity school's charter date and the premise that it had institutional identity with the Academy of Philadelphia. Whitefield was a firebrand Methodist associated with The Great Awakening; since the Methodists did not formally break from the Church of England until 1784, Whitefield in 1740 would be labelled Episcopalian, and in fact Brown University, emphasizing its own pioneering nonsectarianism, refers to Penn's origin as "Episcopalian"[3]). Penn is sometimes assumed to have Quaker ties(its athletic teams are called "Quakers," and the cross-registration alliance between Penn, Haverford, Swarthmore and Bryn Mawr is known as the "Quaker Consortium.")But Penn's website does not assert any formal affiliation with Quakerism, historic or otherwise, and Haverford College implicitly asserts a non-Quaker origin for Penn when it states that "Founded in 1833, Haverford is the oldest institution of higher learning with Quaker roots in North America."[4]
  6. ^ Protestant Episcopal Church - LoveToKnow 1911
  7. ^ University Chapel: Orange Key Virtual Tour of Princeton University
  8. ^ Brown's website characterizes it as "the Baptist answer to Congregationalist Yale and Harvard; Presbyterian Princeton; and Episcopalian Penn and Columbia," but adds that at the time it was "the only one that welcomed students of all religious persuasions."[5] Brown's charter stated that "into this liberal and catholic institution shall never be admitted any religious tests, but on the contrary, all the members hereof shall forever enjoy full, free, absolute, and uninterrupted liberty of conscience." The charter called for twenty-two of the thirty-six trustees to be Baptists, but required that the remainder be "five Friends, four Congregationalists, and five Episcopalians"[6]
  9. ^ Resource: Student history
  10. ^ Epstein, Joseph. Snobbery: The American Version. Houghton Mifflin. 2003. ISBN 0-618-34073-4.  p. 55, "by WASP Baltzell meant something much more specific; he intended to cover a select group of people who passed through a congeries of elite American institutions: certain eastern prep schools, the Ivy League colleges, and the Episcopal Church among them." and Wolff, Robert Paul. The Ideal of the University. Transaction Publishers. 1992. ISBN 1-56000-603-X.  p. viii: "My genial, aristocratic contempt for Clark Kerr's celebration of the University of California was as much an expression of Ivy League snobbery as it was of radical social critique."
  11. ^ The Associated Press. Yale Jinx Overcome, Dartmouth Now Seeks To Break Spell Cast by Princeton Teams. The New York Times. 1935-10-5: (35). 
  12. ^ Auchincloss, Louis. East Side Story. Houghton Mifflin. 2004. ISBN 0-618-45244-3.  p. 179, "he dreaded the aridity of snobbery which he knew infected the Ivy League colleges"
  13. ^ McDonald, Janet. Project Girl. University of California Press. 2000. ISBN 0-520-22345-4.  p. 163 "Newsweek is a morass of incest, nepotism, elitism, racism and utter classic white male patriarchal corruption.... It is completely Ivy League—a Vassar/Columbia J-School dumping ground... I will always be excluded, regardless of how many Ivy League degrees I acquire, because of the next level of hurdles: family connections and money."
  14. ^ scandals: James Axtell, The Making of Princeton University(2006), p.274; quoting a former executive director of the Ivy League