杜克大学拥有包括7,200英亩（29平方千米）面積的杜克森林在内之8,709英亩（35平方千米）土地，以及建於其上的217座建筑。整個校园分成四大部分：西校园、东校园、中校园和医学中心。校园中心有杜克教堂。免费的巴士线路每周持续运行，连接着各个校园。在大西洋岸边的波福（Beaufort, NC），杜克大學拥有一座占地15 英亩的海洋实验室。建于1930年代的莎拉·杜克花園（Sarah P. Duke Gardens）占地55英亩，是杜克校园里主要的景点之一。
^Duke University's Relation to the Methodist Church: the basics. Duke University. 2002 [2010-03-27]. "Duke University has historical, formal, on-going, and symbolic ties with Methodism, but is an independent and non-sectarian institution...Duke has much in common with other Methodist related schools such as Northwestern, Syracuse, Vanderbilt, or the University of Southern California. Each is unique, and Duke would not be the institution it is today without its ties to the Methodist Church. However, the Methodist Church does not own or direct the University. Duke is and has developed as a private non-profit corporation which is owned and governed by an autonomous and self-perpetuating Board of Trustees."