不給糖就搗蛋

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裝扮成鬼怪模樣索要糖果的孩子

不給糖就搗蛋(Trick-or-treating)是一種萬聖夜兒童與成人之間進行的傳統遊戲活動。一些穿上萬聖節服裝(通常為各種鬼怪造型)的兒童會挨家挨戶地索要糖果、食物,有時甚至包括錢財,并喊出“不給糖就搗蛋”(Trick-or-treat)的口號。

在英國和愛爾蘭,這一傳統可以追溯至16世紀之前。北美洲則在1911年首次于加拿大安大略出現此傳統[1],之後逐漸開始在北美流行起來。

歷史[编辑]

和萬聖夜本身一樣,不給糖就搗蛋來自凱爾特人的信仰。凱爾特人認為在萬聖夜這一天神靈或亡者的靈魂會出現,給予其食物是為了換取好運[2] ,並防止自己被其侵害。[3]

15世紀,萬聖節慶典(10月31日至11月2日)上就有分享灵糕的習俗了[4][5][6]。後來,節日期間一些窮人開始在街坊的窗戶下面唱著類似“Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray you good mistress, a soul-cake!”的歌索要灵糕、乞求食物[7]。這一行為當時叫做“souling”[8]

16世紀蘇格蘭出現了名叫“guising”的習俗,年輕人成為食物索要者,之後這一習俗傳播到英國其他地區[9][10]。1911年加拿大安大略金斯頓的一家報紙首次報道“guising”出現於北美。[11]

“Trick or treat”一語的文字記錄最早於1927年出現在加拿大[12],1930年代才在美國和加拿大開始流行起來[13],1940年代以前其他英語國家也很少使用這一短語。[14][15]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Definition of "guising". Collins English Dictionary. (in Scotland and N England) the practice or custom of disguising oneself in fancy dress, often with a mask, and visiting people's houses, esp at Halloween 
  2. ^ Peddle, S. V. (2007). Pagan Channel Islands: Europe's Hidden Heritage. p.54
  3. ^ British Folk Customs, Christina Hole (1976), p.91
  4. ^ Jackson, Jeanne L. Red Letter Days: The Christian Year in Story for Primary Assembly. Nelson Thornes. 1 January 1995: 158. ISBN 9780748719341. Later, it became the custom for poorer Christians to offer prayers for the dead, in return for money or food (soul cakes) from their wealthier neighbours. People would go 'souling' - rather like carol singing - requesting alms or soul cakes: 'A soul, a soul, a soul cake, Please to give us a soul cake, One for Peter, two for Paul, have mercy on us Christians all.' 
  5. ^ Hutton, pp.374–375
  6. ^ Cleene, Marcel. Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. Man & Culture, 2002. p.108. Quote: "Soul cakes were small cakes baked as food for the deceased or offered for the salvation of their souls. They were therefore offered at funerals and feasts of the dead, laid on graves, or given to the poor as representatives of the dead. The baking of these soul cakes is a universal practice".
  7. ^ Mary Mapes Dodge (编). St. Nicholas Magazine. Scribner & Company. 1883: 93. Soul-cakes," which the rich gave to the poor at the Halloween season, in return for which the recipients prayed for the souls of the givers and their friends. And this custom became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long time, it was a regular observance in the country towns of England for small companies to go from parish to parish at Halloween, begging soul-cakes by singing under the windows some such verse as this: "Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray you good mistress, a soul-cake!" 
  8. ^ Miles, Clement A. (1912). Christmas in Ritual and Tradition. Chapter 7: All Hallow Tide to Martinmas.
  9. ^ McNeill, F. Marian. Hallowe'en: its origin, rites and ceremonies in the Scottish tradition. Albyn Press, 1970. pp.29–31
  10. ^ Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Volume 2. 1855. pp.308-309
  11. ^ Rogers, Nicholas. (2002) "Coming Over: Halloween in North America". Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. p.76. Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-514691-3
  12. ^ "'Trick or Treat' Is Demand," Herald (Lethbridge, Alberta), November 4, 1927, p. 5, dateline Blackie, Alberta, Canada Nov. 3.
  13. ^ Moss, Doris Hudson. "A Victim of the Window-Soaping Brigade?" The American Home, November 1939, p. 48. Moss was a California-based writer.
  14. ^ Morton, Lisa. Trick or Treat a history of halloween. Reaktion Books. 2012: 64. ISBN 9781780231877. 
  15. ^ "One Lump Please", Time, March 30, 1942. "Decontrolled", Time, June 23, 1947.

外部連接[编辑]