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人智學

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人智學(英語:Anthroposophy;德語:Anthroposophie)是由神秘主義鲁道夫·施泰纳[1]在 20 世紀初創立的一種哲學,它假設存在一個客觀的、智力上可理解的靈性世界,可供人類體驗。該學說的追隨者旨在透過一種獨立於感官體驗的思維模式進行靈性探索。[2][3] 他們還旨在以一種可透過理性話語驗證的方式表達他們的想法,並在研究靈性世界時尋求與研究物理世界的科學家所獲得的精確度和清晰度相當。

人智學起源於德國唯心主義和神秘主義哲學。[4] 施泰納選擇了人智學這個詞(來自 anthropo-,人類,和 sophia,智慧)來強調他的哲學的人文主義取向。[2][5] 他將其定義為“對靈性世界的科學探索”[6],其他人又稱其為“哲學文化運動”[7]、“靈性運動”[8]、“靈性科學”[9]或“一個思想體系”(英語:a system of thought)[10]等。人智學思想已被用於許多領域的替代運動,包括教育(在華德福學校和坎普希爾運動(英語:Camphill Movement)中)、農業(生物動力農法)、醫學、銀行、組織發展和藝術。[2][11][12][13][14]

然而,許多科學家和醫師等批評了人智學的應用在醫學、生物學、農業和教育領域是危險的和偽科學的。[15][16][17][18] 斯坦納的一些觀點偏離了現代科學,包括:“種族”進化(參見社會達爾文主義種族主義[19][20]、「透視」(或作靈視,斯坦納聲稱自己有該方面的能力)[21]亞特蘭蒂斯的神話[22]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Anthroposophy 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2021-02-08., Encyclopedia Britannica online. "Anthroposophy, philosophy based on the premise that the human intellect has the ability to contact spiritual worlds. It was formulated by Rudolf Steiner (q.v.), an Austrian philosopher, scientist, and artist, who postulated the existence of a spiritual world comprehensible to pure thought but fully accessible only to the faculties of knowledge latent in all humans."
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Robert McDermott, The Essential Steiner, ISBN 0-06-065345-0, pp. 3–11, 392–5
  3. ^ "Anthroposophy"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), Encyclopædia Britannica online, accessed 10/09/07
  4. ^ Christian Clement (ed.), Rudolf Steiner: Schriften über Mystik, Mysterienwesen und Religionsgeschichte. Frommann-holzboog Verlag, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, 2013. ISBN 978-3-7728-2635-1. p. xlii
  5. ^ Rudolf Steiner, Waldorf Education and Anthroposophy, Anthroposophic Press 1995 ISBN 0880103876
  6. ^ Steiner, Rudolf. Philosophie und Anthroposophie: Gesammelte Aufsätze, 1904-1918. Verlag der Rudolf Steiner-Nachlassverwaltung. 1965 [2021-12-22]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-22) (德语). 
  7. ^ Handbook of new religions and cultural production. Carole M. Cusack, Alex Norman. Leiden: BRILL. 2012 [2021-02-17]. ISBN 978-90-04-22648-7. OCLC 794328527. (原始内容存档于2021-06-01). 
  8. ^ Phillips, D. C. Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy. SAGE Publications. 2014-05-19: 847 [2021-04-10]. ISBN 978-1-4833-6475-9. (原始内容存档于2021-06-01) (英语). 
  9. ^ Steiner, Rudolf. What is anthroposophy? : three perspectives on self-knowledge. Christopher Bamford. Great Barrington, MA: Anthroposophic Press. 2002 [2021-02-17]. ISBN 0-88010-506-2. OCLC 49531507. (原始内容存档于2021-06-01). 
  10. ^ Weiner, Irving B.; Craighead, W. Edward. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, Volume 1. John Wiley & Sons. 2010-01-19: 86 [2021-04-10]. ISBN 978-0-470-17025-0. (原始内容存档于2021-06-01) (英语). 
  11. ^ Carlo Willmann, Waldorfpädagogik: Theologische und religionspädagogische Befunde, ISBN 3-412-16700-2, Chap. 1
  12. ^ Heiner Ullrich, "Rudolf Steiner" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2015-09-24., Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. XXIV, no. 3/4, 1994, p. 555–572.
  13. ^ Peter Schneider, Einführung in die Waldorfpädogogik, ISBN 3-608-93006-X
  14. ^ Ullrich, Heiner. Rudolf Steiner: Leben und Lehre. Munich: C. H. Beck. 2010: 9. 
  15. ^ The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. ABC-CLIO. 2002: 31– [2016-10-17]. ISBN 9781576076538. (原始内容存档于2016-12-24). 
  16. ^ Ruse, Michael. The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet. University of Chicago Press. 2013-09-25: 128– [21 June 2015]. ISBN 9780226060392. 
  17. ^ Schools of pseudoscience pose a serious threat to education | letters. The Guardian. 12 May 2012 [29 November 2018]. (原始内容存档于10 September 2017) (英语). 
  18. ^ Gorski, David. A University of Michigan Medical School alumnus confronts anthroposophic medicine at his alma mater. Science-Based Medicine. 14 March 2011 [29 November 2018]. (原始内容存档于7 May 2019). 
  19. ^ Staudenmaier, Peter. Race and Redemption: Racial and Ethnic Evolution in Rudolf Steiner's Anthroposophy. Nova Religio. 1 February 2008, 11 (3): 4–36. doi:10.1525/nr.2008.11.3.4. 
  20. ^ Staudenmaier, Peter. Between Occultism and Fascism: Anthroposophy and the Politics of Race and Nation in Germany and Italy, 1900-1945 (PDF). Cornell University. [5 September 2021]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-08-18). 
  21. ^ Kreidler, Marc. Rudolf Steiner's Quackery. Quackwatch. 23 July 2012 [5 September 2021]. (原始内容存档于2019-03-23). 
  22. ^ Staudenmaier, Peter. Race and Redemption: Racial and Ethnic Evolution in Rudolf Steiner's Anthroposophy. Nova Religio. 1 February 2008, 11 (3): 4–36. doi:10.1525/nr.2008.11.3.4. 

外部連結[编辑]