生物動力農法

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生物動力農法(英語:Biodynamic agriculture),又稱為自然動力農法或是生機互動農業,是一種另類的農業形式,非常近似於有機農業,但包含多種來自人智學的概念[1][2],最先由魯道夫·斯坦納於1924年提出,是各種有機農業運動中最早提出的一個[3]

生物動力農法與其他有機方法有很多共同之處 - 它強調使用有機肥料。生物動力農法獨特的地方包括將動物,作物和土壤作為單一系統進行處理,從當地生產和分配系統的開始,其對傳統和新的當地品種和品種開發的使用的重點。[4]生物動力農業使用各種草藥和礦物質添加劑用於堆肥添加劑和田間噴霧劑;有時候這些方法是有爭議的。[5]

科學性爭議[编辑]

生物動力農法的一部份主張現在被認為是偽科學,缺少可否證性,無法用科學檢驗。例如認為西洋占星術中的星座運行會影響各類型作物的最適播種時間。生物動力農法也主張用民俗醫療中的藥草製作有機肥,例如用蓍草花塞進鹿的膀胱、洋甘菊塞進牛腸、橡樹皮放在家畜的髗骨內再用泥炭包裹埋入地底、或是把牛糞塞在牛角中來產生腐植質。農學家認為用標準的有機農業手段就可以得到同樣的效果,而生物動力農法反倒更像是煉金術探地術,而這種教條式的法則反倒阻礙永續農業的發展。[5][6][7]

另見[编辑]

參考來源[编辑]

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ Lejano RP, Ingram M, Ingram HM. Chapter 6: Narratives of Nature and Science in Alternative Farming Networks. Power of Narrative in Environmental Networks. MIT Press. 2013: 155. ISBN 9780262519571. 
  2. ^ Paull, John. Attending the First Organic Agriculture Course: Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course at Koberwitz, 1924. European Journal of Social Sciences'. 2011, 21 (1): 64–70. 
  3. ^ Vogt G. Lockeretz W , 编. Chapter 1: The Origins of Organic Farming. Organic Farming: An International History (CABI Publishing). 2007: 9–30. ISBN 9780851998336. 
  4. ^ 2015 Biodynamic Lunar and Planetary Calendar[永久失效連結]; Desmond Ansel Jolly, Isabella Kenfield, California's New Green Revolution: Pioneers in Sustainable Agriculture, University of California Small Farm Program 2008, p. 114; Carl F. Jordan, An Ecosystem Approach to Sustainable Agriculture, Springer 2013, p. 126; Arnaldo Walter and Pedro Gerber Machado, "Socio-Economic Impacts of Bioethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil", in Socio-Economic Impacts of Bioenergy Production Dominik Rutz, Rainer Janssen (eds.) , Springer 2014 ISBN 978-3-319-03828-5 pp. 193-215. p. 208; Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Committee on Twenty-First Century Systems Agriculture, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century, National Academies Press 2010. ISBN 978-0-309-14896-2 p. 21
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Treue, Peter. Blut und Bohnen: Der Paradigmenwechsel im Künast-Ministerium ersetzt Wissenschaft durch Okkultismus. Die Gegenwart. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 13 March 2002 [15 November 2011]. (原始内容存档于17 April 2003) (德语).  (Translation: "Blood and Beans: The paradigm shift in the Ministry of Renate Künast replaces science with occultism")
  6. ^ Kirchmann, Holger. Biological dynamic farming – an occult form of alternative agriculture?. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 1994, 7 (2): 173–87. S2CID 153540221. doi:10.1007/BF02349036. 
  7. ^ Chalker-Scott, Linda. The Myth of Biodynamic Agriculture (PDF). Master Gardener Magazine. 2004. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于29 August 2017). 

書目[编辑]

  • Proctor, Peter. Grasp the Nettle: Making Biodynamic Farming & Gardening Work. With Gillian Cole. Random House. 1997. 

外部連結[编辑]