本页使用了标题或全文手工转换

基里瓜遺址

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
border=none
基里瓜考古公園及遺址
联合国教科文组织认定的世界遗产
QuiriguaStela1.jpg
近攝基里瓜石碑D的上部,刻畫著國王考阿克天的臉和他精緻的頭飾[1]
基本資料
國家  危地马拉
地区** 拉丁美洲和加勒比地区
编号 149
註冊類型 文化遺產
評定標準 文化遺產i, ii, iv
註冊歷史
註冊年份 1981(第七屆)
* 名稱依據世界遺產名錄註冊。
** 地區以聯合國教科文組織所劃分为准。

基里瓜遺址(西班牙語:Quiriguá西班牙語發音:[kiɾiˈɣwa] )是位於瓜地馬拉東南部伊薩瓦爾的古馬雅遺跡。它沿莫塔瓜河下游、占地約3平方公里(1.2平方英里),屬於中型遺址[2],其中禮儀中心位在距北岸1公里(0.6英里)處[3]馬雅古典時期英语Mesoamerican chronology(公元200年–900年)時,基里瓜坐落於幾條重要貿易路線英语Trade in Maya civilization的交點。遺址的衛城內建有200座建築、約始於公元550年,八世紀時開始興建大型建築。所有工程在約公元850年停止動工,僅在後古典時代初期(約公元900年–約公元1200年)短暫復工。基里瓜遺址和鄰近的古典時期城市科潘擁有相同的建築與雕塑風格,歷史發展也緊密相依[4]

基里瓜在8世纪的快速发展与其统治者考阿克天於738年战胜科潘有关。科潘统治者英语List of rulers of Copán十八兔王英语Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil败於基里瓜并被抓获,在基里瓜的大广场被献祭[5]。 在这之前,基里瓜曾是科潘附庸国,但後来基里瓜维持了自己的独立地位。基里瓜的仪式建筑物英语Maya architecture并不多,但基里瓜的建筑物十分丰富,在基里瓜有新大陆里最高的纪念性建筑物英语monumental sculpture[6]

已知的统治者[编辑]

名字(或绰号) 统治年代 顺序[7]
"Tok Casper英语Tok Casper" 426–?[8] 1
Tutuum Yohl K'inich英语Tutuum Yohl K'inich 约455[8] ?
"3号统治者" ("Turtle Shell") 约480[8][9] ?
"4号统治者" ("Basket Skull") ?–?[9] 3?
Mih Toh 493–[9] 4?
K'awiil Yopaat ("5号统治者") 约653[9] ?
K'ak' Tiliw Chan Yopaat ("Cauac Sky"或"Kawak Sky") 724–785[10] 14
"Sky Xul英语Sky Xul" 785 –约795[10] 15
"Jade Sky英语Jade Sky" 约800 – 约810[10] 17?

腳註[编辑]

  1. ^ Looper, 2003, pp.122, 140, 146.
  2. ^ Ashmore 1980, p.24.
  3. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.352.
  4. ^ Miller 1999, p.49.
  5. ^ Looper 2003, pp.4–5, 83.
  6. ^ Coe 1999, p.121.
  7. ^ 据Looper 2003, p.205.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Martin & Grube 2000, p.216.
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Looper 2003, pp. 205–209.
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Martin & Grube 2000, p.218.

參考資料[编辑]

Ashmore, Wendy. The Classic Maya Settlement at Quirigua: Recent agricultural activities have helped reveal the extent of the buried settlement (PDF online publication). University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology英语University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 1980 [2009-08-20]. 
Ashmore, Wendy. Classic Maya Wells at Quirigua, Guatemala: Household Facilities in a Water-Rich Setting. American Antiquity英语American Antiquity (Menasha, Wisconsin: Society for American Archaeology英语Society for American Archaeology). January 1984, 49 (1): 147–153. ISSN 0002-7316. JSTOR 280519. OCLC 1479302. doi:10.2307/280519. 
Ashmore, Wendy. Settlement Archaeology at Quiriguá, Guatemala. University Museum monograph, no. 126; Quirigua Reports, vol. 4. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology英语University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 2007. ISBN 978-1-931707-91-6. OCLC 74460023. 
Banco de Guatemala. Monedas. Banco de Guatemala. [2009-02-10] (西班牙语). 
Coe, Michael D. The Maya. Ancient peoples and places series 6th, fully revised and expanded. London and New York: Thames & Hudson英语Thames & Hudson. 1999. ISBN 0-500-28066-5. OCLC 59432778. 
Demarest, Arthur A.; Prudence M. Rice; Don Stephen Rice. The Terminal Classic in the Maya lowlands: Assessing collapses, transitions, and transformations. (编) Arthur A. Demarest; Prudence M. Rice; Don S. Rice. The Terminal Classic in the Maya lowlands: Collapse, transition, and transformation 1st pbk. Boulder: University Press of Colorado英语University Press of Colorado. 2005: 545–572. ISBN 0-87081-822-8. OCLC 61719499. 
Drew, David. The Lost Chronicles of the Maya Kings. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 1999. ISBN 0-297-81699-3. OCLC 43401096. 
Huxley, Aldous. Beyond the Mexique Bay: A Traveller's Journal Reprint. London: Chatto & Windus英语Chatto & Windus. 1950 [©1934]. OCLC 256049361. 
Inforpress. Diagnóstico de la Municipalidad de Los Amates Departamento de Izabal (PDF). Inforpress Centroamericana. [2009-02-10] (西班牙语). 
Jones, Christopher. Paper No. 13: Monument 26, Quirigua, Guatemala. (编) Edward M. Schortman and Patricia A. Urban (volume eds.). Quirigua Reports II: Papers 6–15. University Museum monograph, no. 49; Quirigua reports, vol. 2. Robert J. Sharer英语Robert J. Sharer (general ed.) 1st, cloth. Philadelphia. PA: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology英语University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 1983: 118–128. ISBN 978-0-934718-48-6. OCLC 67294894. 
Kelly, Joyce. An Archaeological Guide to Northern Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press英语University of Oklahoma Press. 1996. ISBN 0-8061-2858-5. OCLC 34658843. 
Looper, Matthew G. New Perspectives on the Late Classic Political History of Quirigua, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press). 1999, 10 (2): 263–280. ISSN 0956-5361. OCLC 86542758. doi:10.1017/S0956536199101135. 
Looper, Matthew G. Lightning Warrior: Maya Art and Kingship at Quirigua. Linda Schele series in Maya and pre-Columbian studies. Austin: University of Texas Press英语University of Texas Press. 2003. ISBN 0-292-70556-5. OCLC 52208614. 
Martin, Simon; Nikolai Grube. Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens: Deciphering the Dynasties of the Ancient Maya. London and New York: Thames & Hudson英语Thames & Hudson. 2000. ISBN 0-500-05103-8. OCLC 47358325. 
Miller, Mary Ellen. Maya Art and Architecture. London and New York: Thames & Hudson英语Thames & Hudson. 1999. ISBN 0-500-20327-X. OCLC 41659173. 
San Diego Museum of Man (a). Casts of our Maya Monuments. San Diego Museum of Man. n.d. [2010-06-16]. 
San Diego Museum of Man (b). Maya: Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth. San Diego Museum of Man. n.d. [2010-06-16]. 
Scarborough, Vernon L. Courting in the Southern Maya Lowlands: A Study in Pre-Hispanic Ballgame Architecture. (编) Vernon Scarborough; David R. Wilcox. The Mesoamerican Ballgame. Tucson: University of Arizona Press英语University of Arizona Press. 1991: 129–144. ISBN 0-8165-1360-0. OCLC 51873028. 
Schele, Linda; Khristaan D. Villela. Creation, Cosmos, and the Imagery of Palenque and Copan (PDF online publication). Mesoweb articles. Mesoweb: An Exploration of Mesoamerican Cultures. [2009-01-11]. 
Sharer, Robert J. The Maya Highlands and the Adjacent Pacific Coast. (编) Richard E.W. Adams; Murdo J. Macleod. The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Vol. II: Mesoamerica, part 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2000: 449–499. ISBN 0-521-35165-0. OCLC 33359444. 
Sharer, Robert J.; David W. Sedat; Loa P. Traxler; Julia C. Miller; Ellen E. Bell. Early Classic Royal Power in Copan: The Origins and Development of the Acropolis (ca. AD 250–600). (编) E. Wyllys Andrews V; William L. Fash. Copán: The History of an Ancient Maya Kingdom. Santa Fe and Oxford: School of American Research英语School of American Research Press and James Currey Ltd. 2005. ISBN 0-85255-981-X. OCLC 56194789. 
Sharer, Robert J.; Loa P. Traxler. The Ancient Maya 6th, fully revised. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-8047-4817-9. OCLC 57577446. 
Sheets, Payson D. The Southeast Frontiers of Mesoamerica. (编) Richard E.W. Adams; Murdo J. Macleod. The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Vol. II: Mesoamerica, part 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2000: 407–448. ISBN 0-521-35165-0. OCLC 33359444. 
Stross, Fred H.; Payson Sheets; Frank Asaro; Helen V. Michel. Precise Characterization of Guatemalan Obsidian Sources, and Source Determination of Artifacts from Quirigua. American Antiquity英语American Antiquity (Menasha, Wisconsin: Society for American Archaeology英语Society for American Archaeology). April 1983, 48 (2): 323–346. ISSN 0002-7316. JSTOR 280454. OCLC 1479302. doi:10.2307/280454. 
Stuart, David; George Stuart. Palenque: Eternal City of the Maya. London: Thames & Hudson英语Thames & Hudson. 2008. ISBN 978-0-500-05156-6. OCLC 227016561. 
Torres, Estuardo. Parque Arqueológico Quiriguá. Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes. [2009-08-14]. (原始内容存档于May 13, 2009) (西班牙语). 
Trustees of the British Museum. Alfred P. Maudslay (1850–1931). The British Museum: Explore/Highlights. Trustees of the British Museum. n.d. [2009-02-10]. (原始内容存档于2009-01-20). 
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archaeological Park and Ruins of Quirigua. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. [2009-02-10]. 
Webster, David L. The Fall of the Ancient Maya: Solving the Mystery of the Maya Collapse. London: Thames & Hudson英语Thames & Hudson. 2002. ISBN 0-500-05113-5. OCLC 48753878. 

外部連結[编辑]

坐标15°16′10″N 89°02′25″W / 15.26944°N 89.04028°W / 15.26944; -89.04028