微分音音樂

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微分音音樂(Microtonal music),或簡稱為微音音樂微分音即比半音還要小的音程。微分音音樂亦曾在某些原始社會中出現過,古往以來也不乏作曲家和理論家對微分音的研究。

在部分作品中,作曲家也曾少量使用微分音作為裝飾,以在傳統音高之中增加一些變化。他們大多各自使用自創的記譜法,來為傳統的五線譜表示微分音。巴爾托克·貝拉曾直接在音符旁標註箭頭,以上下指示微分音的升降。布洛赫則在音與音之間畫上斜線,以表示微分音的升降。阿洛伊斯·哈巴潘德列茨基則是從升降記號的變形創造新記號,作為微分音的升降記號。

微分音音樂的記譜法問題,在作曲家之間一直難以達成共識,演奏家也不願意學習冷僻的記譜法。要續繼使用原有的五線譜,還是另外建立一套新的系統,至今也還沒有定論。

除此之外,還有微分音適當距離的問題。較早之前的是從十二個半音再分一半的24個四分之一音的音階。布索尼提倡36個音的音階,以六分之一音為最小音程。阿洛伊斯·哈巴隨後也發展出以十二分之一音為音程符號的樂制,一個八度音有72個音。

Julián Carrillo英语Julián Carrillo設計了一種準確、靈活的新方法。C音以0表示,在一個八度音階裡,以連續的數目來表示音。例如半音音階可以0~11來表示,四分之一音的音階可以0~23表示。Joseph Yasser在他的著作《發展調性的理論》(A Theory of Evolving Tonality)中,反對以機械化的方式分割音,提倡在音樂演進的過程中擴展音階。他認為音樂的發展是從五聲音階到七聲音階,再從七聲音階到十二聲音階。根據這個發展過程,下一階段應該是十九聲音階,其中原先的十二音是正音,新的七個音是副音(相當於七音階的半音)。

Harry Partch英语Harry Partch 调性钻石, 43音階

Harry Partch則在《音樂的起源》(Genesis of a Music)詳細研究調律系統和音階,並以此提出43音階。

除此之外,還有演奏方面的問題。雖然聲樂、弦樂可以奏出微分音,但不易正確奏出。或者需要兩架鋼琴,調音相差四分之一音,再各自演奏分配開來的譜。還有專為微分音設計的特殊樂器,如Ervin M. Wilson的31音鍵盤。微分音的演奏工具,主要還是電子樂器。

微分音音樂的美學價值,到目前為止也還沒有定論。即使可以分辨出微分音音高上的微小差別,也無法保證其藝術價值。而且對於大多數的音樂家而言,微分音就是沒奏準的音。微分音音樂目前還處於開拓階段,主要還是進行實驗性質的工作。

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外部連結[编辑]

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